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NOTES Introduction 1. A variety of academic writers have explored the importance of medicine’s media images over the decades. See, for example, C. Belling, “Reading The Operation : Television, Realism, and the Possession of Medical Knowledge,” Literature and Medicine 17:1 (1998): 1–23; C. Bredbenner, M. Finckenor, and D. Grasso, “Health-Related Content in Prime Time Television Programming,” Journal of Health Communication 8:4 (2003): 329–41; R. Chary-Assad and R. Tamborini, “Television Doctors: An Analysis of Physicians in Fictional and Non-Fictional Television Programs,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 45:3 (2001): 499–521; M. B. Cassata, T. Skill, and S. O. Boadu, “In Sickness and Health,” Journal of Communication 29 (1979): 73–80; S. J. Diem, J. D. Lantos, and J. A. Tulsky, “Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Television—Miracles and Misinformation,” New England Journal of Medicine 334:24 (1996): 1578–82; G. Gerbner, L. Gross, M. Morgan, and N. Signiorelli, “Programming Health Portrayals ,” in D. Pearls, L. Bouthlet, and J. Lazar, eds., Television and Behavior (Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1982), 1:291–307; Lester Friedman, ed., Cultural Sutures: Medicine and Media (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004); Suzanne Gordon, Nursing against the Odds: How Health Care Cost Cutting, Media Stereotypes, and Medical Hubris Undermine Nurses and Patient Care; P. A. Kalisch and B. J. Kalisch, “Sex-Role Stereotyping of Nurses and Physicians on Prime-Time Television: A Dichotomy of Occupational Portrayals ,” Sex Roles 10 (1984): 533–53; R. Malmsheimer, Doctors Only: The Evolving Image of the American Physician (New York: Greenwood Press, 1988); E. Meir, “The Image of the Nurse—Myth vs. Reality,” Nursing Economics 17:5 (1999): 273–76; J. McLoughlin, “The Doctor Shows,” Journal of Communication 25 (1975): 182–84; D. Nelkin, “An Uneasy Relationship: The Tensions between Medicine and the Media,” Lancet 347 (1996): 1600–1605; K. A. Neudorf, “Health 403 Images in the Mass Media,” in E. B. Ray and L. Donehew, eds., Communication and Health (London: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990); M. Pfau, L. J. Mullen, and K. Garrow, “The In›uence of Television Viewing on Public Perceptions of Physicians ,” Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 39 (1995): 441–58; L. Reagan and P. Treichler, eds., Medicine’s Moving Pictures (Albany: State University Press of New York, 2007); N. Signiorelli, Mass Media Images and Impact on Health: A Sourcebook (London: Greenwood Press, 1993); Lynn Spigel and Michael Curtin, eds., The Revolution Wasn’t Televised (New York: Routledge, 1996); J. Turow, “Television Entertainment and the US Health Care Debate,” Lancet 347 (1996): 1240–15; J. Turow and L. Coe, “Curing Television’s Ills: The Portrayal of Health Care,” Journal of Communication 35 (1985): 36–51; J. Van den Bulck,“The Impact of Television Fiction on Public Expectations of Survival following Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation by Medical Professionals,” European Journal of Emergency Medicine 9:4 (2002): 325–29. 2. This discussion is in›uenced by writings about industrial practices in the “production of culture,” also called “critical media-industries studies.” The area has fortunately been undergoing a dramatic revival recently. Notable overviews and examples of this literature include J. T. Caldwell, Production Culture (Durham, NC: Duke University Press); D. Croteau and W. Hoynes, The Business of Media (Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press); P. du Gay, ed., Production of Culture/Culture of Production (London: Sage, 1997); J. Ettema and D. C. Whitney, Audiencemaking (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994); L. Grindstaff and J. Turow, “Television Sociology,” Annual Review of Sociology 32 (2006): 103–25; T. Havens, A. D. Lotz, and S. Tinic, “Critical Media Industries Studies: A Research Approach,” Communication, Culture & Critique, 2 (2009): 234–53; J. Hartley, ed., Creative Industries (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005); D. Hesmondhalgh , The Culture Industries (London: Sage, 2002); J. Jensen, “An Interpretive Approach to Cultural Production,” in W. Rolland, ed., Interpreting Television (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1984), 98–117; R. A. Peterson, “Five Constraints on the Production of Culture,” Journal of Popular Culture 16:2 (1982): 143–52; C. Stabile, “Resistance, Recuperation, and Re›exivity: The Limits of a Paradigm,” Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12 (2002): 403–22; G. Tuchman, Making News (New York: Free Press, 1980); J. Turow, Media Systems in Society, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1997). 3. Phil Rosenthal, “‘ER’ Final Episode,” Chicago Tribune, March 29, 2009, -rosenthal-29mar29. 4. Bill Gorman, “Ratings: ABC, Grey’s Anatomy Win “Finale Thursday; But Declines Continue,” TV by the Numbers Web site, http://tvbythenumbers .com/2009/05/15/ratings-abc-greys...


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