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271 Notes chapter four 1 Executive Order no. 6260, August 28, 1933; Trading with the Enemy Act, 12 U.S.C. sec. 95a (1917); Gold Reserve Act of 1934, 38 Stat. 337 (1934). 2 Bauer v. U.S., 244 F.2d 794 (9th Circuit, 1957). chapter five 1 General Allotment Act of 1887 (Dawes Act), 24 Stat. 388 (1887). chapter six 1 For press reports of the police misconduct hearing, see Seattle Post-Intelligencer, January 23, 1965, and New York Times Magazine, December 5, 1965, p. 61. chapter seven 1 For a full description of the role that Billy Frank played in Indian resistance to Washington State’s violation of treaty rights, see Charles Wilkinson, Messages from Frank’s Landing (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000), 34–38. 272 notes 2 This incident is described by Marlon Brando in his autobiography, Songs My Mother Taught Me (New York: Random House, 1994), 375–78. chapter eight 1 Dennis L. Noble, “Native Americans in the U.S. Coast Guard,” U.S. Coast Guard web site, www.uscg.mil/history/NativeAmericans. asp; Sharon E. Wilkerson, “Station Neah Bay Breaks Ethnic Barriers at the Turn of the Century,” Commandant’s Bulletin (U.S. Coast Guard) (November 1995): 27. 2 For a description of the Makah people and their culture, see Ann M. Renker and Erna Gunther, “Makah,” in Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 7, ed. William Sturtevant (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1990), 422–30. See also Elizabeth Colson, The Makah Indians: A Study of an Indian Tribe in Modern American Society (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1953). 3 For a description of the effects of the War on Poverty on tribal governments, see Charles F. Wilkinson, Blood Struggle (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005). chapter nine 1 See “Status of the Ozette Indian Reservation, Washington,” in Opinions of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior Relating to Indian Affairs, 76 I.D. 14, M-36456 (Supp.), February 18, 1969, p. 1989, describing the decline in population at Ozette. 2 Referenced in Opinions of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior Relating to Indian Affairs, 64 I.D. 435, M-36456, November 21, 1957, p. 1805. 3 See Opinions of the Solicitor, supra note 1, pp. 188–93. 4 See Patricia Ward Henderson with Helma Ward and Kirk Wachendorf , Voices of a Thousand People: The Makah Cultural and Research Center (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002). Visitor data provided to the author by Janine Bowechop, executive director, Makah Cultural and Research Center. 5 M. T. Stevens, Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs notes 273 (Washington, D.C., 1858), 232. 6 Makah Indian Tribe v. U.S., Docket No. 60-A, 7 Indian Claims Commission 477, Final Order (April 15, 1959). 7 Makah Indian Tribe v. U.S., Docket No. 60-A, 39 Indian Claims Commission 97 (October 15, 1976); Makah Indian Tribe v. U.S., Docket No. 60-A, 40 Indian Claims Commission 131, 134 (May 4, 1977). chapter ten 1 Reef-net fishing is described in U.S. v. Washington, 384 F. Supp. 312, 360 (Western District of Washington, 1974). chapter eleven 1 Kennedy v. Becker, 241 U.S. 556 (1916). 2 For the history of the Pacific salmon industry, see Fay G. Cohen, Treaties on Trial: The Continuing Controversy over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986), 40–45; Patrick O’Bannon, “Technological Change in the Pacific Coast Canned Salmon Industry.” (PhD diss., University of California , San Diego, 1983); August C. Radke, Pacific American Fisheries, Inc.: History of a Washington State Packing Company, ed. Barbara S. Radke (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2002); Kit Oldham, “The First Salmon Cannery on the Columbia River Opens at Eagle Cliff, Wahkiakum County, in 1866,” HistoryLink.org (accessed July 17, 2008). 3 Tulee v. Washington, 315 U.S. 681 (1942). 4 For a history of the Northwest Indian fishing rights conflict, see American Friends Service Committee, Uncommon Controversy: Fishing Rights of the Muckleshoot, Puyallup and Nisqually Indians (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1970), and Cohen, Treaties on Trial. 5 Department of Game v. Puyallup Tribe, 70 Wash. 2d 262 (1979). 6 Undated, privately distributed newsletter received in 1970 (copy in author’s possession). 7 “Indians Found Innocent of Fish-In Incident,” Seattle Times, January 17, 1969. 274 notes 8 The Renegade, June 1971 (publication of the Survival of American Indians Association, copy in author’s possession). 9 U.S. v. Oregon and Sohappy v. Smith, 302 F. Supp. 899 (D. Oreg. 1969...

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