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Introduction 1. I am grateful to Ariel Salzmann for suggesting the term vernacular politics. Salzmann (1999) uses the term in a somewhat different sense in her work on late Ottoman society. 2. At the party, the hands of the bride and female friends and family are dyed red with henna to celebrate her impending marriage. 3. See, for instance, Duben (1982), Güneş-Ayata (1996), and Kağıtçıbaşı (1996). 4. These processes are described in detail in Eickelman and Piscatori’s (1996) insightful and exhaustive account of the sociopolitical context and symbolic politics of Muslim political practice in a variety of locations around the world. 1 | The Political Economy of Culture 1. A leader of the Islam-oriented Virtue Party approved the national celebration of Valentine’s Day for the first time in February 2000. 2. The political party founded by Ataturk. The Republican People’s Party was in power until Turkey’s first multiparty elections in 1950. 3. Official unemployment figures remained at this level until the mid1990s when they began to decline somewhat. 4. Navaro-Yashin (2002) notes that tesettür coats and scarves were described by shopkeepers who sold them as being rooted in Ottoman times, a part of Turkish history, and “authentically Turkish,” yet were NOTES advertised as being foreign made (yabancı mal) to imply better quality, and, indeed, were often made of imported cloth. Çınar (1997, 32) also has pointed out that the image projected by Turkish Islamists is based on an orientalist image of Ottomanism and Islam that originated in and is aimed, in part, at consumption by the West. In other words, although the Islamist-secularist dialogue is constructed as a national dialogue, based on competing versions of local “authenticity,” both are embedded in a global marketplace of ideas and images. Navaro-Yashin (1999) also argues that Islamist “authenticity” is reactive, a response to secularist fears. 5. It was unclear whether these were birth names or chosen names. On at least one occasion, an activist introduced herself to me by saying, “They call me . . . ,” an unusual locution. 2 | Religion and Politics in the Everyday 1. For information on Ümraniye, see the entry in Istanbul Ansiklopedisi (1994, 341), and the sociological survey by Erder (1996). Güvenç and Işık (1998) link type of industry, employment, region of origin, neighborhood of residence, and housing status in Istanbul, creating combined ethnic/occupational/residential maps of the city. 2. The evening before the wedding, the women of both families get together in a henna party at which they generally sit and chat over nuts and cake. The younger women often dance. In a series of rituals, the bride’s close friends symbolically escort her out of her unmarried life and family home into a life with her husband and mother-in-law. The palms of the bride and guests are painted red with henna paste, thus the name. 3 | The Institutional Expression of Islam 1. The headman (muhtar) is the elected representative of a mahalle neighborhood . 2. For a general discussion of Turkish Islam, with particular attention to the Alevi, see Shankland, 1999. On the Alevi, also see Çamuroğlu, 1997, and Yavuz, 1999c. Mélikoff, 1992, discusses Sufism. 3. The government has denied supporting Hizbullah. For a detailed account of Hizbullah and other radical Islamic groups, see Narlı, 1996, 48–52. 4. For an in-depth discussion of the order, see Mardin, 1994, and Özdalga , 1999. 5. For more on the Fethullacılar, see Aras, 1998; Narlı, 1996, 42–45; Özyürek, 1997; and Yavuz, 1999a, 1999b. Fethullah Gülen’s life story is told in Can, 1996. 278 · Notes 6. For an analysis of the writings of Said Nursi and the Nurcu movement, see Mardin, 1989. 7. The tradition of the Prophet Muhammed’s example. 8. Interview with Hashim Bayram, CEO of Kombassan Holding, Boston, January 27, 1999. 9. Buğra describes an interesting contrast in positions on these issues between the Islamic business community as represented by MÜSIAD (The Association of Independent Industrialists and Businessmen) and the conservative labor union confederation Hak-Iş (1999, 40–53). A pseudonym. 4 | Generation X and the Virtue Party 1. As the internal battle heated up, news reports in spring 2000 began to refer to the split within the Virtue Party as one of the renewers (yenilikçi) versus traditionalists (gelenekçi). 2. Interviews with Mayor Erdoğan, Izmit, June 27, and Istanbul, June 29, 1998. 3. The Alevi are an Islamic minority noted for...

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