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Index Boldface numbers refer to figures and tables. Agriculture, Research Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998, 14 Agriculture, U.S. Department of, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), 177, 182 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC): models of recipiency and exit from, 115; perspectives on welfare receipt , empirical data regarding, 98–106, 111–16; receipt and exit, timing of, 105; recipiency, early 1990s, 101; TANF as replacement for, 7 Aliessa v. Novello, 75 Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2 armed forces personnel, veterans, and their spouses, 10, 40 asylees: described, 10, 64n3, 124; eligibility under welfare reform, 40 Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 14, 42 Balistreri, Kelly, 109 Bean, Frank, 24–25, 30 Besharov, Doug, 47 Blackmun, Harry, 73 Borjas, George: chilling effect of Proposition 187 in California, 31n8; food insecurity in states with state-funded assistance for noncitizens vs. those without assistance , 183; magnet hypothesis, 16–17, 46, 97, 100, 102–3; negative-acculturation hypothesis, 103–4; relative education levels of immigrants, 62 Brown, Susan K., 30 Burtless, Gary, 93–94 Bush, George W., 14, 42 Butler, Amy, 107 California: benefits to postenactment immigrants , budget crisis threatening, 13; Proposition 187, 31n8, 126, 147n4 Capps, Randy, 20, 25–27, 62, 161 Chicanos Por La Causa, Inc. v. Napolitano, 77 children: arguments for extending public benefits to noncitizen, 51–52; food insecurity for, 183–84; health and behavior of, welfare transitions and (see childrens’ health and behavior); health insurance coverage of (see health insurance coverage of low-income children); of immigrants , disadvantageous conditions experienced by, 193–94; poverty rates among foreign born and native born, 60–61, 61; problems faced by immigrant, 62–63; welfare reform’s impact on, 27–28, 194–96 (see also childrens’ health and behavior) childrens’ health and behavior: age and the impact of welfare transitions following PRWORA on, 197–98; analysis groups based on welfare use, 201; empirical study of the impact of welfare transitions following PRWORA on, 198–201; impact of welfare transitions following PRWORA on, 195–96, 205–8, 209–10; limitations of the study, 208–9; methodology of the study, 210–17; postwelfare economic conditions and, 204–5; regression -adjusted associations reported in results tables, 218–23; significance of, 196–97; welfare use and, linking of, 201–4 Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009, 14–15, 154, 185 chilling effects: of California’s Proposition 187, 31n8; of PRWORA, 18–19, 126, 157–58, 194–95 Chiswick, Barry, 106 citizens: health insurance coverage for low-income children of (see health insurance coverage of low-income children); native-born, 125; naturalized (see naturalized citizens) Citizenship and Immigration Services, U.S. See Immigration and Naturalization Service Clinton, Bill, 1, 42, 71 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 46–48 Congressional Research Service, 43, 46–47 Cortes, Kalina, 108 courts and constitutional issues: food stamps and SSI, noncitizen eligibility restrictions upheld, 82n2; limited judicial action, implication of, 81; PRWORA: the equal protection clause and discrimination against lawful permanent residents, 22–23, 69–76; state and local activity addressing immigration, exclusion of undocumented immigrants and, 70–71, 76–80; state restrictions on benefits to noncitizens, decision regarding, 44 Crosby, Danielle, 28 Cuban-Haitian entrants, 10 cultural theories of welfare, 96 De Canas v. Bica, 79–80 Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, 15–16, 31n7, 155, 185 Doe v. Commissioner of Transitional Assistance , 75 Earned Income Tax Credit, 41 economic choice theory, 96 education, low levels among immigrants, 62 Ehrenreich, Barbara, 107 Ehrlich v. Perez, 75 eligibility restrictions: arguments opposing, 50–52; arguments supporting, 43–50, 63; comprehensive effort to limit access to federal means-tested entitlements through, welfare reform as, 6; immigrant eligibility categories, 9–11; for Medicaid and the Food Stamp Program, 154–57; naturalized citizens and noncitizens, distinction between, 8; overview of, 8–12, 39–41, 99, 194; post-PRWORA legislation affecting legal immigrants, 14–15, 154, 156; qualified and unqualified aliens, distinction between, 8–9, 39–40; qualified preenactment and qualified postenactment immigrants, distinction between, 11–12, 40; state choices, 12–13 emergency benefits, 40 families: low-income defined, 147n1; mixed-status, 19 family incomes of immigrants, 1994-2004, 127; families with low-income children, 128; native and legal permanent resident families, 127–28; naturalized citizen families, 129–30; refugee families, 128–29 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, 14, 154, 178, 182–83 federal benefit rate (FBR), 7 federalism: PRWORA’s invitation to states to discriminate, 69–72; state and local actions addressing immigrants, 76–80; state restrictions on welfare benefits...


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