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x (logical symbol): In modern formal logic, a symbol used in the “quantification” of statements— i.e., in the expression of the range of instances (either “universal” or “particular”) to which what is predicated applies. Thus: “(x). . . .” expresses a universal statement (i.e., “For all x, . . . .”); while “(∃x). . . .” expresses a particular statement (i.e.,“For some x, . . . ;” or “There is at least one x such that. . . .”). [Note: Many contemporary philosophers, especially in the English-speaking world, have taken this feature of modern formal logic to entail that the very meaning of being or existence is reducible to quantificational factors. Typical expressions of this view are: “Existence is not a predicate;” and “To be is to be the value of a variable.” From the standpoint of perennial philosophy , modern logic as a formal system (or systems) is unexceptionable ; however, such an interpretation of being itself is both gratuitous and philosophically mistaken. (See the distinction of senses under being, especially (4) vs. (5).)] xeno- (particle, from Greek xenos for“strange”): A combining wordform signifying otherness —including individual otherness, but especially otherness of race or culture , and even, more recently, of species. (The experience of “the other” has been an object of investigation in phenomenology. The notion of otherness also has become relevant in applied ethics: for example,“xenophobia” signifies a morally inappropriate (and, in the strict sense, pathological) fear of 297 X Carlson-05UZ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 297 persons of another race or culture; while “xenotransplantation” refers to the biomedical practice of replacing human tissues or organs with those of other animals—a practice that calls for reflection on the concrete implications of respect for human dignity, as well as on the proper treatment of other animals themselves.) 298 xenoCarlson -05UZ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 298 ...