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ultimate end or good: See final end. ultimate practical judgment: The final judgment of practical intellect about a concrete matter, one that takes the form “Such-andsuch is to be done (or not done).” As proposed to the will of the person (s) involved in the situation, this judgment is also called a command (in Latin, imperium). uncaused (adj.): Existing and acting without being dependent on any cause; said properly only of the absolutely (2) First Cause (i.e.,God). (Note: “Uncaused” is to be distinguished from“self-caused;”the latter designates change or motion as originating from within a thing’s nature (3)—and thus applies in respective ways to all living but fin ite beings.) (Compare aseity.) uncertain (adj.): Subjectively experienced as, or objectively marked by,the impossibility of a firm judgment , at least in the present circumstances . (Ant: certain. Compare doubtful.) uncertainty (n.): Subjective or objective state marked by lack of firm judgment, due to possibility of error. (Ant: certainty or certitude.Compare doubt [as a n.].) unconscious (adj.): (1) Unable, either temporarily or permanently, to enjoy (or to be brought to) a psychic state of consciousness. (Compare nonconscious.) (2) In the 279 U Carlson-05UZ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 279 theory of Sigmund Freud, pertaining to deep motivations that fail to reach consciousness. (Contrast both conscious and subconscious, as well as preconscious or precognitive .) unconscious (n.): In the theory of Sigmund Freud, deep aspect of the psyche (2) that affects behavior without any possibility of reaching a level of explicit awareness in the subject (2). (Contrast conscious [in its occasional use as a n.] and consciousness, as well as “subconsciousness,” listed under subconscious.) unconsciousness (n.): State in which a person, or an animal, suffers a loss of consciousness. (Unlike simple nonconsciousness—which characterizes, for example, chemical compounds and statues— unconsciousness is a privation.) undergo or suffer (v., corresponding to Latin patior): To be acted upon by another. (Contrast act [as a v.].) understanding (n.): (1) (Corresponding to Latin intellectus.) The habitus of first principles of the speculative reason—e.g., the principles of identity (“Each being is what it is”), of sufficient reason (“Everything that is, insofar as it is, has a sufficient reason for its being”), and of finality (“Every agent acts for an end”). (2) More generally, the achievement of knowledge or correct awareness of any sort, especially in relation to the explanation of conditions and events, but also in relation to the meaning of words and texts. Also: “understand” (v.). understanding of faith (Latin intellectus fidei): Phrase used by the medieval Scholastic St. Anselm to speak of the role of philosophically trained reason in theology— namely, to develop, as John Paul II put it (Fides et ratio, #42), “explanations which might allow everyone to come to a certain understanding of the contents of faith.” For Anselm, reason or intellect is spurred on in this task because it “must seek that which it loves [i.e., the truth about God].”(See as well faith seeking understanding.) unethical (adj.): Not ethical (i.e., morally wrong), as judged in terms of an explicit or presumed standard .(Ant:ethical (2).Compare immoral . Contrast moral (2).) Also: “unethically” (adv.). unicity (n.): Uniqueness. unity (n.): See oneness or unity. unity (or interconnectedness) of the virtues: The idea that all of the essential moral virtues must in some measure be possessed by a person if he or she is to judge and 280 unconscious Carlson-05UZ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 280 act rightly over a lifetime of typical human circumstances. (For example , a person with fortitude or courage (2) will act bravely in challenging situations; but if that person does not also possess the virtue of justice, he or she cannot be counted on to exercise courage only in ways that preserve social order. Likewise, without prudence, the person may needlessly endanger his or her life, as well as that of others.) universal (adj. or n.): (1) (As an adjective .) Able to be predicated of many—i.e., all things of a specific formal character. (2) (As a noun.) Formal character or es sence that can be thus shared. (Ant: particular. See as well universals, problem of.) Also: “universality” (n.), “universally ” (adv.). Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Document developed by the fledgling United Nations organization in 1947, and subsequently ratified by a majority of member states (2). Coming after the defeat of totalitarian forces in World War...


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