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tautology (n.): A proposition that can be known to be true simply by virtue of its form. Sometimes the term is more restrictively applied only to compound propositions that have this property—e.g., propositions of the form “Either p or not-p.” (Compare and contrast analytic (2), evident or selfevident , and per se nota.) Also: “tautological” (adj.), “tautologically ” (adv.). techne (Greek n.): Skill or know-how. See the discussion under art (2). technology (n., from Greek techne, for“skill”):Application of the modern physical and, increasingly, bi ological sciences to address human needs or desires. [For perennial thinkers, the development of new and effective technologies is, in general, to be welcomed. However , critical questions sometimes arise concerning: a) whether genu ine needs are being identified and met; and b) whether the development and use of particular technologies properly assist in the pursuit of integral human good—or whether, on the contrary, they violate an aspect of that good (as would be the case, for example, in efforts at human cloning).] Also: “technological” (adj.), “technologically ” (adv.). Teilhardian (adj.): Of or pertaining to the thought of Teilhard de Chardin, S.J. (1881–1955). Teilhard was a paleontologist by training , in addition to being a philosopher and theologian. His thought was daring and controversial; not surprisingly, he has been both admired and maligned by fellow Catholic thinkers. For example, Teilhard took terms originating 267 T Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 267 in the Bible (see Rev. 21, where Christ is identified as the Alpha and the Omega, or the beginning and the end, of Creation) and developed the notion of “Alpha and Omega points” in expressing his theological vision. According to this vision, the Alpha point represents the first instant of Creation, and the Omega point represents its evolutionary fulfillment, sometimes conceived by Teilhard as the full embodiment of Christ in global society. Another of his neologisms was “noosphere” (compare “atmosphere,” “biosphere,” etc.), by which he intended the final stage of evolutionary development , in which the ability to think rationally (Greek noein) emerges. (Compare process thought.) teleological (adj.): Of or pertaining to teleology, in any of the three senses specified. (In relation to the third sense, contrast deontological .) Also:“teleologically” (adv.). teleological structure of human goods: In Thomistic accounts of the human good, the structure— or set of structures—according to which goods are ordered to one another. Two orders in particular are distinguished: first, as to which goods are more basic or fundamental , in the sense of being necessary if other goods are to be enjoyed ; and second, as to which goods are higher or more important , in the sense of fulfilling our specifically human, or personal, powers and acts. The most fundamental good would be life itself. The highest good would be one’s personal relationship with God. (See hierarchy of goods and con flict of rights and duties. Contrast incommensurability thesis.) teleology (n., from Greek telos, for “end” or “purpose”): (1) For perennial philosophy generally, the view that each being is naturally ordered (inAristotle’s terminology, via its entelechy) toward respective types of fulfillment, with implications for the proper ends (1) of human acts. (See final cause.) (2) In philosophical theology, a type of reasoning to God (exemplified in the fifth of Aquinas’s Five Ways) that begins with the enddirectedness and order within the universe and concludes to God as transcendent, universally ordering Intelligence. (Note: As formally philosophical, such teleological arguments do not stand or fall with recent efforts by some scientists [and religious writers] to present intelligent design as the scientific (2) theory that most plausibly accounts for the development of the natural world.) (3) In recent moral philosophy, any type of normative theory that emphasizes the conse268 teleological Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 268 quences of actions as the key to their moral evaluation. (Regarding sense (3), contrast deontology.) temperament (n.): The feature of personality comprising an individual ’s typical emotional and other affective responses to various types of experience.(Note:Aspects of temperament figure into character ; the latter, however, also includes virtues the individual may develop—or fail to develop.) temperance (n.): The cardinal virtue that enables the making of right choices regarding food, drink, sex, and other matters involving pleasure or physical satisfaction. Temperance operates by regulating the movements of concupiscible appetite—and, by extension, other modes of desire and aversion . (Compare fortitude in relation to movements of irascible appetite...


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