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sacrament (n.): In the understanding of Catholic Christianity,a practice instituted by Christ, the significance of which is raised to the divine order and which confers what it symbolizes. (For example, in the sacrament of Baptism Origi nal Sin is removed—“washed away”—in the practice involving water; and in sacramental Marriage husband and wife are joined irrevocably by God through their exchange of vows and physical union.) Also:“sacramental”(adj.), “sacramentally” (adv.). sacred (adj.): See holy or sacred. salvation (n.): The final end for human persons, as specified in Christian teaching; thus a concept equivalent in function to Aristotle ’s eudaimonia (“happiness” or “fulfillment”), but with the added note that this state is supernatural and cannot be achieved without God’s gracious, saving action. (See beatitude.) sanction (n., Latin sanctio, from sancire, for “to fulfill”): A punishment or reward that safeguards the character of law, and thus guarantees its holiness (Latin sanctitas). As there are different types of law, so there are different types of sanction . Human positive law enacts various systems of punishment for those who violate it; divine law is sanctioned by the promise of be atitude and the threat of ultimate separation from God. In the case of natural (moral) law, the very order (2) of natural and human reality provides the fundamental sanction: one who makes good moral choices thereby becomes a better person and proceeds toward his or her fulfillment, while one 243 S Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 243 who makes bad moral choices proceeds in the reverse direction. sanctity of life: See life, sanctity of. sapiential (adj., from Latin sapientia , for “wisdom”): Having to do with wisdom, the traditional goal of philosophy. Scholastic (adj. or n., from Latin schola, for“school”): (1) Pertaining to the medieval philosophers and theologians known as “Schoolmen ”; also, such a thinker himself. In Fides et ratio, #74, John Paul II mentions, as a “great triad” of Scholastics, St. Anselm, St. Bonaventure , and St. Thomas Aquinas. Although in certain respects there were significant differences among the medieval schools, the common term “Scholastic” is warranted by the distinctive style of inquiry shared by them all—a style that emphasized commentary on traditional problems and texts,rigorous disputation, and logical precision. (2) (Sometimes Neo-Scholastic.) Pertaining to followers of medi eval schools from the late 19th century to the present day; or such a thinker himself or herself. Also: “Scholasticism” and “NeoScholasticism ” (n.). school (n.): Within philosophy and other disciplines, a community of scholarship (comprising teachers and students, often across generations ) that maintains a welldefined approach to issues and/or a common set of core theses. Schools often are associated either with a particular center of study (e.g., the “Oxford school” of analytic philosophy) or with one or a few principal thinkers (e.g., the “Scotist school,” after the late medieval Scholastic John Duns Scotus ). (A school can be contrasted with a tradition, with the latter term ordinarily designating a somewhat broader movement of thought. However, this distinction is not exact. Thomism, for example, is alternatively called a“school”or a “tradition”—and it is called both by John Paul II in different sections of Fides et ratio. Moreover, taken as a tradition, it can be seen to comprise several differing schools, as indicated in this dictionary’s entry for Thomism.) science (n.,Latin scientia): (1) Originally , and according to the Aristotelian ideal, explanatory knowledge in the form of conclusions demonstrated by way of principles and causes, which are mentioned in the premises of the reasoning. (In this sense, “science” includes metaphysics and other philosophical disciplines, as well as sacred theology, whose formal principles are objects of faith (2)). (2) As commonly understood today, by con244 sanctity of life Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 244 trast with philosophy and theology , any of various “positive” studies of nature (from Latin po sita , for “things set down”) that employ primarily empiriological, including experimental, methods. Also: “scientific” (adj.), “scientifically ” (adv.). scientism (n.): A recently articulated but widely held (either explicitly or implicitly) philosophical view claiming that all genuine knowledge is to be achieved through the methods of the positive sciences. [Note: This view, expressed by writers such as Richard Dawkins, is clearly at odds with perennial philosophy, as well as with theology understood as a cognitive discipline. For this and other reasons ,it is important to mark a clear distinction between scientism and genuine science (2)—the...