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pacifism (n.): Philosophical or theological position opposed to war as a matter of strict principle (2).(Note: Throughout its history, Christianity has given rise to expressions of pacifism. While supporting the right of individual citizens to embrace pacifism as a matter of conscience, perennial philosophy, and the Catholic moral tradition generally, also recognize the justice (2) of engaging in armed conflict under certain specified conditions .See the discussion under just war theory.) Also: “pacifist” (adj. or n.). paganism (n.): Worship of gods other than the one, true God (as in the polytheisms of ancient cultures ); also,the worship of physical things as gods. In the contemporary context, pervasive attitudes (sometimes collectively referred to as “neo-paganism”) that involve seeking one’s ultimate fulfillment through physical things, even if these things can be called objects of “worship” only in an extended or metaphorical sense. (See atheism (2) and materialism (2).) Also: “pagan” (adj. or n.). pain (n.): A direct negative experience ,in any of its various types and modes,but especially those involving the senses. Objects threatening pain, apprehended precisely as such, are objects of aversion for all persons of normal affectivity. (Ant: pleasure.) Also: “painful” (adj.), “painfully” (adv.). panentheism (n.): See the discussion under pantheism. Also: “panentheist ” (adj. or n.). panpsychism (n., from Greek pan, for “all” + psuche, for “soul”): Theory that all things in nature are animated or enjoy some type of experience. (Versions of this 197 P Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 197 theory are found in the religions of animism; it also has had philosophical adherents—most notably , among modern thinkers, Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716).) (See as well vitalism.) Also: “pan psychist ” (adj. or n.). pantheism (n., from Greek pan, for “all” + theos, for “god”): Theory, or family of theories, holding that all things are divine, and/or that God and the world are identical . (This position is to be distinguished from the somewhat rarer view called“panentheism,”according to which the world is partially, but only partially, identifiable with God—that is, the reality of God encompasses the world, but goes beyond it.) Also: “pantheist” (adj. or n.),“pantheistic” (adj.). parenthood (n.): The state of having initiated, through procreation, new human life and a unique communion of persons (i.e., a new family (1)). In the personalist account elaborated by John Paul II, parenthood—properly understood and practiced—involves a special type of human imaging of God (in which, for Roman Catholic theology, the Holy Spirit is said to “proceed” from the mutual love and self-giving of the Father and the Son). That is, the woman becomes a mother through the gift of self to her husband; and the man becomes a father through the gift of self to his wife; and the child proceeds from their mutual, self-giving love.(Note: Just as there are other, related groupings that can analogously be called families, so there are other, related relationships that can analogously be called “parenthood.”) Also:“parent”(n.), “parental” (adj.). parenthood, responsible: Phrase used in Pope Paul VI’s Humanae vitae (1968) to designate the appropriate regulation of conception and birth in family life. (See birth regulation or control,and natural family planning.) Parousia (Greek n., from ousia, for “being”or“essence”): Literally meaning “arrival” or “presence,” this term has been used since ancient times to name the biblical second coming of Christ, with its attendant judgment and final transformation of the physical world. parsimony, principle of: See the discussion under Ockhamist. part (n.): (1) Component of a physical being, whether integral and constituent (e.g., its substantial form); or material (e.g., a hand or a foot). (2) (Metaphorical.) A distinguishable aspect of a spiritual being (e.g., intellect and will in the human soul), or of a being of reason (e.g., the middle term in 198 pantheism Carlson-04PT_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:43 PM Page 198 a syllogism). (Contrast whole.) Also:“partial”(adj.),“partially”or “partly” (adv.). participate (v.): To share in a property that belongs primarily and per se to another—e.g., the brush being used participates in the painter’s art. Metaphysically speaking , all beings participate in the transcendental properties, which belong primarily to, and are enjoyed per se by, God.Also:“participative ” (adj.). participated theonomy: See the discussions under autonomy and theonomy. participation (n.): (1) The condition or state according to which a being shares in a quality belonging primarily and per se to another. (That physical and...