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magisterium (Latin n.,from magister, for“teacher;”sometimes rendered without italics; sometimes capitalized ): Highest teaching authority in the Roman Catholic Church— either the bishops speaking as a body with the pope, as in the documents of the Second Vatican Council (as well as earlier ecumenical councils); or the pope when he invokes the privilege of speaking ex cathedra (Latin for “from the chair” [sc. of Peter]) on a matter of faith or morals. This term also applies to the common,if less definitive teachings of the pope and the bishops in communion with him. (The former exercise of authority is sometimes called the “extraordinary” magisterium, the latter the“ordinary”magisterium.) Also:“magisterial”(adj.). magnanimity (n.): Moral virtue by which one is enabled to conceive and pursue noble goals; sometimes called “greatness of soul.” (See the discussion under fortitude .) Also:“magnanimous”(adj.), “magnanimously” (adv.). man (n.): (1) (Corresponding to Latin homo.) Human nature (2), or all human beings, considered precisely from the standpoint of their sharing in human nature. Thus, the philosophy of the human person also has been called the “philosophy of man.” (2) (Corresponding to Latin vir.) A male member of the human race. (Note: Contemporary linguistic sensitivities, inspired by concern over the status of women, sometimes discourage the use of “man” in the first sense; however,it still figures prominently in some expressions of philosophy and theology, as well as in official Church teachings. If the difference between the two meanings 165 M Carlson-03KO_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 165 of “man”is observed, no obstacles to correct understanding need occur.) (Regarding sense (2), contrast woman.) manifestation (n.): A feature of things insofar as it is available to powers of awareness, especially sense awareness (when thus restricted , the term is equivalent to phenomenon).Also:“manifest”(v.). man of practical reason (Greek: phronemos): According to Aristotelian accounts of moral virtue, the person (or man (1)) who has prudence , and who thus is able to determine with accuracy the proper mean between extremes in a particular case. marital (sometimes conjugal) (adj.): Of or having to do with marriage. (Thus, strictly in light of this dictionary ’s entry on the latter term, the phrases “marital (or conjugal) relationship”and“marital (or conjugal ) act” refer to relationships and to acts, especially acts of sexual intercourse, engaged in by couples who have entered into the state and institution of marriage.) marital and sexual ethics: A field of applied ethics with many important issues for Catholic tradition, some examples of which are listed here. a) Does the practice of contraception by a married couple fall within the range of proper respect for the ends (1) of marriage and human (i.e., personal) sexuality? Or must birth regulation or control ,if it is to be morally acceptable, be pursued by means of natural family planning? The Church’s“ordinary ” magisterium continues to hold and promote the latter position , sometimes with increasing vigor. b) Which reproductive technologies can be used to assist infertile couples in ways consistent with proper respect for the dignity of human life and procreation ? Surely some technologies can, while others cannot—but which, and why? c) Might the personalist emphasis that is being infused into the perennial tradition open philosophical “space” for reconsidering the morality of nonmarital sexual acts, perhaps including homosexual acts? Or would such a development involve an unacceptable dualism (2) about human acts, as popes and traditional moral thinkers so far have firmly maintained? market economy: See the discussion under capitalism. marriage (n.): The institution, natural (3) in origin, but commonly regulated by positive law, in which a man and a woman are united to form a unique community of love, as well as to provide a proper context for the procreation and rearing of children that may result 166 manifestation Carlson-03KO_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 166 from their union. (For Catholic Christianity, the marital union and associated civil contract can be elevated by grace to the level of a sacrament, namely, matrimony.) [Note: According to this account, the general nature of marriage is ontologically prior to any determinations by the state. However, continuing debates and de facto legal developments in certain U.S. jurisdictions—as well as in certain otherWestern countries—have led to pressure on the perennial tradition , and on the Catholic Church, to recognize a second sense of the term“marriage,”one whose extension would include all relationships recognized as marriages by local law and...


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