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Kantian (adj. or n.): Of or related to, or a person who follows, the views of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804). In speculative philosophy, Kant held that we could achieve genuine knowledge—but that such knowledge was strictly limited to structured phenomena, together with whatever could be discovered (via the method of transcendental (2) deduction ) about the intrinsic, structuring categories of the human mind. Questions that go beyond these matters—in particular, regarding the reality of God or the human soul—were, for Kant, beyond the reach of human understanding .Modern forms of positiv ism , immanentism, “symbolicism” (see symbol (2)), and similar positions bear the marks of his influence . In moral philosophy, Kant stressed the autonomy of the human will, as well as what has come to be called a deontological approach to ethical issues. The latter he famously expressed in terms of the “categorical imperative,” which, in contrast to “hypothetical ” or conditional imperatives (which suppose particular desires on the part of agents), holds universally and without exception. Kant articulated various formulations of the categorical imperative, the most important of which inquire respectively of the relevant “maxim” or rule of action: a) Can I coherently will that everyone act in this way? b) Am I hereby treating all persons (i.e., all rational beings, including myself) as ends in themselves, rather than as mere means? Also: “Kantianism” (n.). katabatic (adj., from Greek katabainein , for “to go down”): Characteristic of theological knowledge 153 K Carlson-03KO_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 153 that requires the “descending” of God’s revelation or self-disclosure (in particular, for Christians, God’s self-disclosure as the Trinity of divine persons known through Scripture and tradition)—by contrast with theological knowledge that can be built up on the basis of natural (4) human reasoning.(Contrast anabatic.) kataphatic, sometimes cataphatic (adj., from Greek kata, for“down,” + phanain, for“to say”): Approach to God by way of words, including words that have been adapted from philosophical speculation, as well as words that have “come down” through sacred scriptures and traditions . For Christian writers, the term also characterizes the very “Word of God”—that is, Jesus Christ himself (see Fides et ratio, #23). (Contrast apophatic.) kenosis (Greek n., for “emptying”): The self-emptying of God in Christ (see Philippians 2), a central feature of the mystery of Incarnation. (Mentioned in Fides et ratio, #93, this theme—as technically elaborated and developed—provides an example of what John Paul II called philosophy in its“third state” [see states (or stances) of phi losophy ]. He remarked that problems about the mystery of God’s self-emptying are such that “a coherent solution to them will not be found without philosophy’s contribution.”) kerygma (Greek n., for “proclamation ”): Initial preaching of the Gospel, by contrast with teaching or instruction related to it. The aim of kerygma is conversion and faith; the aim of teaching or instruction is understanding. Accordingly , philosophical reason plays a role primarily in the latter . However, the very form of initial preaching can be affected by philosophical (as well as other cultural) factors; this perhaps is most evident in the opening chapter of John’s Gospel,with its proclamations about Jesus as the“Word” (Greek Logos). key, affective: See affective key. kill (v.): To take the life of another, especially another human being. For perennial philosophy, and the ordinary Catholic magisterium, the deliberate killing of another human being—except in specifiable military , law enforcement, and judicial contexts, or in a case of true necessity (2) (where it is termed “justifiable homicide”)—is murder and is morally wrong. (Some Catholic authors argue further that even in cases of justified killing, the object (3), strictly understood, cannot be the bringing about of the death of the other person or persons.) 154 kataphatic Carlson-03KO_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 154 knowledge (n.): An awareness of how things are. (1) Sense knowledge , which is shared by other animals , is awareness of sensible objects . (2) Intellectual knowledge, which is proper to rational beings, involves correct judgment related to intelligible objects. (Intellectual knowledge can be either speculative or practical. Ideally, for the Aristotelian tradition, both specu lative knowledge and general practical knowledge are equivalent to science (1), or to the indemonstrable first principles on which such science depends.) (3) More loosely—and more commonly today—the attainment, even partial , of the mind’s objects (2), either by way of direct acquaintance or...


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