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131 I id (n.): In Freudian theory, one of the three divisions of the psyche (2); the id is said to be the unconscious source of psychic energy derived from our instinctual needs. idea (n., Greek eidos): (1) The concept or intelligible species by which the intellect to some degree knows a substantial nature or other general feature. The Greek term also was applied by the ancients to sensible species, by which a power of sense is in contact with physical reality. (In both cases a form exists intentionally, that is, as a modification of the power of intellect or, in the case of sensation, of the associated power of the human or animal nature.) (2) More loosely, any notion developed by the mind, whatever its supposed relation with objective reality. (3) The exemplar of each thing existing in the mind of God. ideal (adj.): Of or pertaining to the perfection of a type of reality; or a being, substantial or accidental, regarded as a supreme instance of its type. Also: “ideally” (adv.). ideal (n.): A good, often abstractly expressed, that serves (or ought to serve) as a consciously accepted goal or end (2) of human striving. (Compare value [as a n.].) idealism (n): (1) In metaphysics and epistemology, a theory (or family of theories) holding that reality consists of, or exists most fundamentally as, ideas in the minds of sentient and intellectual beings— including, in some versions, God. (Contrast realism (1) and (2).) (2) In ethics, the possession of lofty goals—the suggestion often being Carlson-02FJ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 131 132 identity, principle of that the goals in question are unrealistic or, as a practical matter , unachievable. (Contrast realism (3).) Also: “idealist” (adj. or n.), “idealistic” (adj.), “idealistically ”(adv.). identity, principle of: The first principle of metaphysics—and thus of all speculative thought—namely, “Everything is what it is.” (Another formulation of the principle would be “What is, is; what is not, is not.”) (Compare noncontradiction , principle of, which stands as the first principle of logic.) ideology (n): Set of ideas governing thought and/or practice, especially (although not exclusively) in the social and political realm. (Sometimes the term is used with a negative connotation , according to which ideologies are to be contrasted with theories having a proper philosophical or other rational grounding.) Also: “ideological” (adj.), “ideologically ” (adv.),“ideologue” (n.). idolatry (n.): Taking something other than God—in particular, a being of the physical world— to be God, and worshipping it accordingly. (The 12th-century Jewish thinker Moses Maimonides warned that any attempt to speak positively and literally of God would lead one into idolatry; thus, apart from recognizing the role of religious metaphor and symbol , he was a pure proponent of the negative way. Not wanting to fall into idolatry himself, and aware of the difficulty raised by his Jewish predecessor, Aquinas developed an account of positive language about God in terms of his theory of analogy.) Also: “idolator” (n.), “idolatrous” (adj.). illative sense: According to the account of 19th-century British thinker John Henry Cardinal Newman (mentioned in Fides et ratio, #74), a faculty or act by which we sometimes come to a conclusion, or a perception of truth, without formal, logical reasoning—for example , in the case of belief in God, through the“convergence”of a variety of experiences and lines of thought. [Note: While acknowledging Newman’s insight, strict Thomists insist, in apparent opposition to Newman, that God’s existence is subject to demonstration.] (Compare abduction.) illogical (adj.): Not logical (2). illumination (n.): Prominent theme in accounts of knowledge, beginning with Plato’s, that suggest we can have direct access to the intelligible features of things. (For St. Augustine,“divine illumination”— i.e., direct illumination by God— takes the place of Plato’s speculation about the soul’s prior acquaintance with eternal Forms. Carlson-02FJ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 132 immanence, method of 133 Somewhat by contrast, Aquinas, who recruits Aristotelian notions to his epistemology, holds that the immediate source of illumination in natural knowledge is the individual’s agent intellect— which, while participating in the light of the divine intellect, develops concepts rooted in the data of experience.) Also: “illuminate” or “illumine” (v). image (n.): (1) Result of operation of the “internal” sense known as imagination. According to perennial philosophy, it is important to distinguish an image from an intelligible idea or concept, since the latter results from the operation of intellect, rather...