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121 H habit (n.): In philosophical psychology , a relatively stable disposition related to a power or appetite , according to which a human person (or other animal) typically acts in a certain manner in specific types of circumstances, or under the influence of specific types of stimuli.(See,by partial contrast,the discussion at habitus.) Also “habitual ” (adj.),“habitually” (adv.). habitus (Latin n., corresponding to Greek hexis; plural is habitus [with long u]): This term, while often rendered into English as“habit,”is best left in the Latin and then explained . For the perennial tradition , a state qualifies as a habitus only if it is related to objective truth or goodness and involves an element of rational direction. (Thus a virtue is an example of a hab itus , while also typically involving habits—e.g., in the case of fortitude, a developed tolerance for physical and/or psychic discomfort .) If a human appetite or power is augmented by a habitus, it will be more likely to achieve its proper end; indeed, unless other factors interfere (physical constraints , inadequate information, mental disorders, etc.) it will do so without fail. There are two types of habitus: a) moral—e.g., the possessed virtue of fortitude or justice; and b) intellectual— e.g., the possessed knowledge of the first principles of speculative thought (identity, sufficient reason , etc.), or the axioms, postulates , and proof-procedures in Euclidean geometry. happiness (n.): (1) (Corresponding to Greek eudaimonia, Latin beatitudo.) As noted by Aristotle, a Carlson-02FJ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 121 122 harm common sense (2) expression for the final end or goal of human life. That is, a person of normal affectivity cannot not want to be happy, however he or she may conceive this state. Thus “happiness” also designates the ultimate human good (in French, suggestively, the term typically used to translate the Greek and Latin is bonheur, from bon, for“good.”). Specific accounts of happiness vary considerably. Aristotle saw happiness as consisting primarily in a life of virtue, but as also requiring minimally decent physical and social conditions . Building upon this, the perennial tradition has come to understand happiness as involving an ordered set of goods, both personal and communal. Theologically considered, the human good in its fullness (expressed in Latin as beatitudo) comes only through sharing in the life of the Triune God, in the life to come. (2) For John Stuart Mill and other hedonist philosophers, the result of an act insofar as it is experienced as positive.(See utilitarianism.) Also: “happy” (adj.). harm (n.): An evil suffered, precisely as suffered; thus for all beings of normal affectivity an object of aversion (2). harm (v.): To bring about an evil in another and/or in oneself. (In the case of human persons, the evil brought about can be of various sorts: physical, psychological, social ,moral,or spiritual.) . Also: “harmful ” (adj.). hate (n.):A basic,negative response of appetite and affectivity to objects of aversion (2). (Note: Sometimes the word “hate” is used synonymously with “hatred,” discussed below.) (Contrast desire (2) and love (1).) hate (v.): (1) Most generally, to experience or exercise hate. (Ant: desire and love (1) [as verbs].) (2) To experience or exercise hatred . (Contrast love (2) and (3) [as verbs].) Also: “hateful” (adj.), “hatefully” (adv.). hatred (n.):As distinct from hate (the basic affective response),a complex human act or emotional state, at least partially subject to reason and choice, in which one wills harm to another person or persons. (Note: What in American jurisprudence have come to be called “hate crimes” are, strictly speaking , crimes involving hatred— especially ones directed at individuals because of membership in a particular social group, e.g., being of a certain race or having a Carlson-02FJ_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 122 hermeneutics 123 nonstandard sexual orientation.) (Contrast love [as a n.] (2) and (3).) hedonism (n., from Greek hedone, for “pleasure”): As understood in ethics, a theory according to which all other moral considerations are reducible to questions of pleasure and pain. (Many utilitarians , including the movement’s principal founders, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, have been hedonists in this sense. However , the two terms are not equivalent ,since there can be other forms of utilitarianism—i.e., other ways of specifying the meaning of goodness in the consequences of acts—than the one offered by hedonism .) Also: “hedonist” (adj. or n.),“hedonistic” (adj.). Hellenization...