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eclectic (adj. or n.): Pertaining to theorizing that draws disparate elements from various sources, with little or no concern for the coherence of the resulting whole; also a person who theorizes in this way. (In Fides et ratio, #86, John Paul II warned against an eclectic approach as unworthy of the philosopher’s—and the theologian ’s—calling.) Also: “eclectically ,” (adv.),“eclecticism” (n.). economic justice: Area of justice (2) falling, in the main, under distributive justice. Its principal topics include the proper distribution of a society’s financial rewards and burdens, the obligation to make available, to the extent possible, meaningful and adequately compensated work, etc. (See the discussions under capitalism and socialism , as well as distributism.) effect (n.): That which results from a cause—whether that cause is,according to the Aristotelian scheme, formal, material, efficient, or final in nature. efficacy (n.): The power to exercise efficient causality, or to bring about a certain result. (Karol Wojtyla emphasized that an explicit awareness of such a power is a property of persons.) Also: “efficacious” (adj.), “efficaciously ” (adv.). efficient cause: An agent in its role of bringing about the reality of, or a feature of, something (hence also sometimes called “agent cause”); one of the four types of cause, or factors in the explanation of being and becoming, as identified by Aristotle. 89 E Carlson-01AE_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 89 egalitarian (adj. or n., from French egalite, for“equality”): See equalitarian , sometimes egalitarian. ego (n., from Latin for “I”): (1) In some presentations of philosophical psychology, another name for the subject (2) or the self as the experienced source of personal activity. (2) In the theory of Sigmund Freud, one of three divisions of the psyche; this ego is said to serve as the“mediator”between the individual and reality. egoism (n.): (1) (Sometimes called “psychological egoism.”) Attitude that disposes one to seek one’s own good, rather than the good of others . (Ant: altruism (1).) (2) (Sometimes called“ethical egoism.”) Normative theory that commends and seeks to justify the attitude, as well as corresponding behavior, identified in sense (1). (Ant: altruism (2).) Also: “egoist” (adj. or n.), “egoistic” (adj.). elementary (adj.): Pertaining to basic features or parts. elements (n.): (1) Quantitatively and sometimes qualitatively distinguishable parts that make up a whole. Since ancient times, there have been theories of elements in the constitution of the physical world. Four basic elements typically were recognized by Greek theorists, as well as their medieval followers—earth, air, fire, and water. In the philosophy of nature , it is important to distinguish between elements and the coprinciples of natural being (i.e., form and matter (3)). (2) (Metaphorically .) Constituents of any kind of whole, whether physical or not. elicited (adj.): See the discussion under appetite. emanate (v.): To emerge, as from an ultimate source. (See emanation.) emanation (n.): A theory of the progressive emergence of reality from a single ultimate source, as articulated by the Neo-Platonists, and as taken over and transformed into an element of Christian theology (with the biblical God as Ultimate Source) by certain Fathers of the Church, particularly St. Augustine. (By contrast with Neo-Platonist philosophy, however, Augustine and the Christian tradition stress that Creation results from God’s free choice, rather than being somehow necessitated.) eminence (sometimes supereminence ) (n.): The special, analogical mode in which transcendental and pure perfections can be predicated infinitely—i.e., without limit—of God. According to Thomistic tradition , such predication contains three elements: a) affirmation (e.g., 90 egalitarian Carlson-01AE_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 90 “God is good”); b) negation (e.g., “God is not good in the way human beings can be good”); and c) transcendence (e.g., “God is good in a way that transcends all created being”). (Note: Unwary readers sometimes confuse the terms “eminence,” “immanence,” and “imminence;” as their respective definitions make clear, the three should be carefully distinguished .) Also: “eminent” (sometimes “supereminent”) (adj.), “eminently” (sometimes “supereminently ”) (adv.). emotion (n.): A strong movement of animal and human affectivity (thus a type of passion (3)) arising from awareness of perceived sources of pleasure or pain, opportunities or threats, challenging circumstances, etc.; and typically including physical as well as psychic dimensions of response. (Related terms would be feeling, which refers to milder or more fleeting forms of affective movements; mood, which refers to longer lasting and/or deeper forms; passion (4), which...


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