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Dasein (German n.): See the discussion under existentialism. data of sense, also sense or sensory data: The individual deliverances of the “external” senses (colors, sounds, tactile impressions, etc.). According to the Aristotelian philosophical tradition, in principle and absent a specific reason for a contrary judgment (e.g., diseased sense organs), such data, as objects of awareness, are to be regarded as identical in form with real features of the object sensed while having an intentional (1), rather than entitative (1), mode of existence. (See direct realism and species (2).) death (n.): Cessation of life. For pe rennial philosophy of nature and philosophical anthropology, the point at which a substantial change occurs; that is, the point at which a being’s substantial form (in the case of a living being, its soul) no longer animates that being as a vital and organized physical whole. death, determination of: The ascertainment , through the application of accepted physiological standards and concrete tests, that a living organism (in particular, a human being) has died. Such a determination has implications for a range of issues in applied ethics and positive law —e.g., the transfer of property and, in certain cases, judgments of homicide . Regarding general physiological standards, a consensus has emerged in the United States— and has been enshrined in respective state laws—that a human being has died if either or both of the following occur: a) there is an irreversible cessation of all 73 D Carlson-01AE_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 73 cardiovascular function; b) there is an irreversible cessation of all brain function, including that of the brain stem. (The term “function ” here refers to activity of organs and organ systems, not to residual activity that for a time may continue in individual cells after the organism as a whole has died.) Concrete tests related to the above standards are subject to change and development in light of progress in the biomedical sciences. death penalty: The state-administered killing of capital offenders as a punishment determined through judicial proceeding. Among states that retain the practice (also called “capital punishment”), this constitutes the ultimate sanction within their systems of criminal justice. (See discussions under culture of death/culture of life and punishment .) debt (n.,Latin debitum):What is due; in ethics, and especially in traditional moral theology, a synonym for duty or obligation. (In common English usage, the word “debt” is usually restricted to financial obligations ; however, in the technical ethical sense it has been applied across the range of human interaction. Thus, in the past theologians spoke of conjugal intercourse as the “marital debt” between husband and wife.) decide (v.): To make a choice between two or more alternatives. decision (n.): See choice. deconstructionism (n.): A contemporary intellectual movement,represented by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida and other proponents of postmodernism, which seeks to clarify (and sometimes to show the incoherence of) various arguments and positions in light of meanings and/or assumptions implicit in the positions themselves ; the arguments and positions in question are said thereby to be “deconstructed.” [Although its explicit targets usually are modern rationalist views, deconstructionism challenges the perennial tradition as well, since it argues against the idea of a language or form of thought that can express definitions (2)—i.e., ones that accord with the very nature of things and our knowledge of them. Similarly , while the perennial tradition can learn from the techniques of deconstruction, it cannot embrace what is typically the movement’s fundamental perspective.] Also: “deconstruction”(n.),“deconstructionist ” (adj. or n.). deduce (v.): To reach a conclusion by way of deduction. deduction (n.): Mode of reasoning or argument according to which, certain propositions (the premises) 74 death penalty Carlson-01AE_Layout 1 11/7/11 1:44 PM Page 74 having been stated, a conclusion is said to follow of logical necessity. If such an argument is correct in its essential features (i.e., if it has true premises and valid reasoning), it is said to be sound and the conclusion is thereby known to be true. (Contrast induction.) Also: “deductive ” (adj.),“deductively” (adv.). de facto (Latin phrase): In fact, or as a matter of fact, by contrast with being formally established by law or principle. (Contrast de jure.) definition (n.): (1) An expression of the meaning (1) or the sense of a word—sometimes called a“verbal ” or “nominal” (from the Latin nomen, for “name”) definition. (Recent philosophers of language have come to identify various types of definition...


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