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203 Notes Abbreviations: Court Records (Named by Location) BA Bab Ali BS Bab al-Sharia BQ Bulaq Dasht Dasht Al-Salih Al-Salih SN al-Salihiya al-Najmiya Q Arab Qisma Arabiya Q Ask Qisma Askariya Z al-Zahid 1. Defining a Framework for the Economic History of Early-Modern Egypt 1. Fernand Braudel, The Wheels of Commerce, vol. 2 of Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century, translated by Sian Reynolds (New York: Harper and Row, 1979), 12; Suraiya Faroqhi, “Crisis and Change, 1590–1699,” in An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire 2, edited by Suraiya Faroqhi, Bruce McGowan, Halil Inalcik, and Donald Quataert (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994), 433. As I was bringing my study to an end, Suraiya Faroqhi’s book Artisans of Empire: Crafts and Craftspeople under the Ottomans (London: I. B. Tauris, 2009) appeared as an important addition to the literature on craftsmen and guilds. 2. Nelly Hanna, Making Big Money in 1600: The Life and Times of Ismail Abu Taqiya, Egyptian Merchant (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univ. Press, 1998); André Raymond, “Une famille de grands negociants en café au Caire dans la premiere moitie du XVIIIe siècle: Les Sharaybi,” in Le commerce du café avant l’ère des plantations coloniales, espaces, réseaux, sociétés, XV–XIXe siècle, edited by Michel Tuchscherer, 111–24 (Cairo: Institute français d’archéologie orientale, 2001). 3. Subhi Y. Labib, “Capitalism in Medieval Islam,” Journal of Economic History 29, no. 1 (Mar. 1969), 82–85. 4. Maya Shatzmiller, Labor in the Medieval Islamic World (Leiden: Brill, 1994), see esp. 101–68. 5. Braudel, The Wheels of Commerce, 312. 204 | Notes to Pages 2–9 6. James Tracy, “Introduction,” in The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350–1750, edited by James Tracy (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ Press, 1990), 2. 7. Donald Quataert, “Labour History and the Ottoman Empire, c. 1700–1922,” International Labor and Working Class History 60 (Fall 2001): 93–109. 8. James Reilly, “Damascus Merchants and Trade in the Transition to Capitalism,” Canadian Journal of History 27 (Apr. 1992): 1–27; Faruk Tabaq, “Local Merchants in Peripheral Areas of the Empire: The Fertile Crescent during the Long Nineteenth Century,” Review 11 (1988): 179–214. 9. Pascale Ghazaleh, Masters of the Trade: Crafts and Craftspeople in Cairo, 1750–1850 (Cairo: American Univ. in Cairo Press, 1999.) 10. Rifa‘at Ali Abou-El-Haj, The Formation of the Modern State: The Ottoman Empire, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries (Albany: State Univ. of New York Press, 1991). 11. Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966). 12. Ariel Salzmann, “An Ancien Régime Revisited: ‘Privatization’ and Political Economy in the Eighteenth Century Ottoman Empire,” Politics and Society 21 (1993): 393–423; Hulya Cankabal, Society and Politics in an Ottoman Town: Ayntab in the 17th Century (Leiden: Brill, 2007.) 13. Mahmud Mitwalli, Al-Usul al-Tarikhiya lil-Rasmaliya al-Misriya wa Tatawwuruha (Cairo: Al-Hayaa al-Misriya al-Amma lil Kitab, 1974), 17–19. 14. Peter Gran, Islamic Roots of Capitalism: Egypt, 1760–1840 (reprint; Cairo: American Univ. in Cairo Press, 1979). 15. Kenneth M. Cuno, The Pasha’s Peasants: Land, Society, and Economy in Lower Egypt, 1740– 1858 (Cairo: American Univ. in Cairo Press, 1994), 3–5, 48–49, 60. 16. See, for example, Bruce Masters, “The 1850 Events in Aleppo: An Aftershock of Syria’s Incorporation into the Capitalist World System,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 22, no. 1 (Feb. 1990): 3–20; Halil Inalcik argues for a later date in “When and How British Cotton Goods Invaded the Levant Markets,” in The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy, edited by Huri Islamoglu-Inan, 374–83 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987). 17. Roger Owen, The Middle East in the World Economy, 1800–1913 (London: Methuen, 1981); Abdul-Karim Rafeq, “The Impact of Europe on a Traditional Economy: The Case of Damascus 1840–1870,” in Économie et société dans l’empire Ottoman, edited by Jean-Louis Bacque-Grammont and Paul Dumont, 419–32 (Paris: Éditions CNRS, 1983). 18. Irfan Habib, “The Potentialities of Capitalist Development in the Economy of Mughal India,” Journal of Economic History 29, no. 1 (Mar. 1969), 43. 19. Semir Amin, “Le capitalisme et la rente foncière: La domination du capitalisme sur l’agriculture,” in La question paysanne et le capitalisme, edited by Semir Amin and Kostas...

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