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309 Notes 1. One growing area is the application of the folklore approach in industrial settings. Formally trained folklorists sometimes go into a business or other organization and use ethnographic fieldwork techniques to make observations and conduct interviews about the traditions and culture of the workplace. The managers and workers can learn about each others’ esoteric and exoteric perceptions from the folklorists’ observations and use that understanding to solve workplace challenges. 2. “Aesthetic qualities” refers to artistic or creative dimensions. We discuss aesthetics in much more detail in chapter 5,“Performance.” 3. We’ll talk more extensively about these dynamic and conservative characteristics in chapter 3,“Tradition.” 4. See Brunvand, The Study of American Folklore (1998) and Toelken, The Dynamics of Folklore (1996). Brunvand labels this mode of expression oral rather than verbal, but Toelken uses verbal. We prefer Toelken’s term to clearly indicate that folklore does exist in written form as well as oral. 5. A more elaborate, purposeful type of custom is ritual, a category of folklore that we discuss in depth in chapter 4. 6. Goffman (1974). Also see chapter 4,“Ritual,” for a discussion of framing and rituals, and chapter 5,“Performance,” for more about frames as markers of performance. 7. See for example, Rosemary V. Hathaway, “The Unbearable Weight of Authenticity: Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God and a Theory of ‘Touristic Reading’, ” Journal of American Folklore, 117. 464 (Spring, 2004), pp. 168-190. 8. A variant is a particular local or vernacular version of a text. Individual performers or creators of texts may produce their own individual variants as well. 9. Signs and symbols. 10. Folklorists who study material folk texts and objects. 11. Ethnocentric attitudes or actions focus on a specific cultural or ethnic group’s perspective. 12. Among them Dan Ben-Amos. 13. Law and Taylor published a book about their craft: Appalachian White Oak Basketmaking (1991). 14. Alan Dundes talks in more detail about part-time folk groups in “Who Are the Folk?” (1980). 15. Some of these ideas have been challenged: see“Functionalism”in chapter 6,“Approaches to Interpreting Folklore.” 16. If you have seen the film High Fidelity (directed by Stephen Frears 2000) or read the novel upon which it was based (Nick Hornby 1995), you may be familiar with the LIVING FOLKLORE 310 behavior of a group of fictional record store employees. These fictional employees have their own folklore, similar to the types of folklore shared by other retail occupational groups. 17. Bonnie Blair O’Connor (1995) provides a model for less ethnocentric belief study, incorporating and valuing a community’s own ideas about its health-related beliefs and practices.Her work illustrates the necessity of being aware of how various belief systems within and outside a group support, oppose, and otherwise interact with each other. 18. The term cultural evolution has often been used to describe the assumption that human societies develop along a timeline, from less sophisticated to sophisticated, or primitive to civilized. Romantic era notions of cultural evolution assumed the opposite, that humans had de-evolved from a pure, natural state to a corrupt, artificial state. We discuss these theories in more depth elsewhere in this chapter. 19. Dundes presents this definition in several essays. See, for example, “Brown County Superstitions” (1961); and “Structural Typology” (1963). 20. This category of narrative was originally referred to by the term urban legend; however , most folklorists prefer the term contemporary legend, since the stories are about contemporary events that take place in contemporary settings, but not always in urban areas. 21. Turner refers to the work of Brunvand (1981), Gary Alan Fine (1980), and Koenig (1985) to show how widely known and studied the Kentucky Fried Rat legend is. 22. Elizabeth Chiseri-Strater and Bonnie Stone Sunstein also draw on the work of Geertz, as well as Ruth Benedict,Barbara Myerhoff,and Ward Goodenough,to visualize culture as “an invisible web of behaviors, patterns, rules and rituals of a group of people who have contact with each other and share common languages” (2001, 3). 23. To avoid the connotations of “making things up” or “fakeness” that the term invention can imply, some folklorists prefer the term emergent tradition to describe and discuss the ways traditions change and arise within groups. See chapter 5, “Performance,” for more discussion of emergence. 24. See, for example, Thomas,“Ride ’Em Barbie Girl” (2000). 25. Folklorists, fine artists, anthropologists, and others who study the work of self-taught artists...