Contents
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Contents Acknowledgments ix Preface  xii 1 Folklore  1 What is Folklore?  1 A Working Definition  1 Scholarly Definitions of Folklore  8 Genres of Folklore  12 Defining Folklore Beyond Genre Labels: Texts and Contexts  18 A Brief History of Folklore Study 21 Conclusion  29 2 Groups  30 What is a Folk Group?  31 Definitions  34 How Folk Groups Form  38 Self-Identification and Group Membership  42 Family, School, and Occupational Groups  46 Family  46 School Groups  49 Occupational Groups  52 Example: Folklore in Bounded Spaces  55 Groups and Belief  61 Example: Belief and Contemporary Legends  66 Conclusion 68 3 Tradition  69 What is Tradition?  69 Tradition is Both Lore and Process  70 Tradition Helps to Create and Confirm a Sense of Identity  71 Tradition is Identified as Tradition by the Community  72 How do People Learn and Share Traditions?  73 Do Traditions Disappear?  79 Dynamic and Conservative Elements of Tradition  81 Inventing Tradition  87 The Question of Authenticity  89 Example: Traditions in Folk Art  92 Conclusion 97 4 Ritual  98 What is Ritual?  99 Low-Context and High-Context Rituals  102 Invented Ritual  104 The Question of Belief in Sacred and Secular Rituals  106 Liminality and Ritual Space  109 Types of Rituals 113 Rites of Passage 114 Coming-of-Age Rituals 117 Initiation Rituals 122 Naming Rituals  124 Example: Rituals and Private and Public Identity  124 Conclusion 128 5 Performance  130 What is Performance?  131 Example: A Proverbial Performance  132 The Study of Performance  136 Performance Texts  137 Texture  138 Context  139 Physical Context  141 Social Context  142 Recognizing Texts in Context: Performance Markers and Framing  144 Reflexivity  146 Emergence  148 Folklore That Pushes the Boundaries  153 Aesthetics  158 Critic versus Group Consensus  163 Traditionality  164 Skill  164 Practicality  168 The Nature of Aesthetic Response  169 Personal Narrative in Performance  173 Example: A Personal Narrative Emerges  175 Conclusion 179 6 Approaches to Interpreting Folklore  180 Functions: Purposes, Roles, and Meanings  181 Example: Multiple Meanings in Context 183 Structure: Patterns, Themes, and Formal Relationships  184 Psychoanalytic Interpretations: Symbols and Metaphors  192 Social Dimensions: Texts and Performances in Complex Contexts 198 Conclusion 205 7 Fieldwork and Ethnography  206 Collecting Data: The Nuts and Bolts of Fieldwork  207 Finding Ideas  207 Getting Started on Fieldwork  209 Developing and Asking Good Questions  212 Field Notes 215 Transcribing and Transcripts 220 Returning from the Field: Follow-up Research  222 The People Factor: Interpersonal and Ethical Concerns  222 Insider and Outsider Roles  223 Observation and Participant-Observer Roles  224 Rapport: Creating and Understanding Researcher-Consultant Relationships 225 Ethics  227 Reciprocal Ethnography 228 Example: Giving up the Last Word 230 Conclusion 231 8 Examples of Folklore Projects  232 One of the Guys (Joe Ringler)  233 Gay Rituals: Outing, Biking, and Sewing (Mickey Weems)  245 Roadside Memorials: Material Focus of Love, Devotion, and Remembrance (Gary E. A. Saum)  255 “Down on Main Street”: The 152nd Bellville Street Fair and Homecoming (Kevin Eyster)  270 Food for Thought: Power and Food in Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God (Emily Yu) 276 The Hookah Folk: Understanding Hookah Smokers as a Folk Group (Joshua Smith) 285 9 Suggestions for Activities and Projects  300 Group and Classroom Activities  301 Personal Reflection  302 Library Research  303 Fieldwork Projects  304 Integrated Projects—Bringing It All Together 305 Traditional Behavior 305 Changes in Groups and Traditions 305 Verbal Expressions 306 Legend Trips 306 Foodways  307 Notes  309 References  314 Index  322 ...


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