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Notes Introduction 1. As Williams (1973:120) puts it: “A working country is hardly ever a landscape. The very idea of landscape implies separation and observation.” 2. All the ethnographic information alluded to here is elaborated upon in chapter 1. 3. They were brothers, from another part of Bolivia. 1. Places and History in and about Quirpini 1. For an account of the complex dualistic world of race in the Andes, see Weismantel 2001. Toranza (1992) and Albro (2000) critique the dualistic view of Andean ethnic difference, arguing that what prevails today is a multipolar system of social distinction based on race, culture, class, and geography. 2. The best herding areas are further south in the high fields of the Tarachaka mountain range. 3. UlpanaVicente(1981)giveshisimpressionofregionalagriculturaltechniquesandknowledge , focusing on the highland region. 4. The plain of Qhocha, which is on the far side of the hills lining the west side of the San Lucas River valley, is not connected by road to the rest of the region. For this reason, and because it was all owned by a single hacienda, it has more tenuous ties to the valley than do the highlands to the east. In climate and history, however, it is similar to the eastern highlands. 5. In Bolivia the term valle is usually reserved for a tropical ecological zone characterized by steep valleys on the eastern slopes of the Andes Mountains. What I am calling the San Lucas River “valley” is called a cañón in Bolivian Spanish. 6. Water is plentiful, however, only compared to the arid highlands. Lack of water (rather than lack of land) is still the main constraint on the expansion of farming in the valley. Although the valley is less dependent on seasonal rain to grow crops than are the highlands, it had experienced the same lack of rainfall, and in the early 1990s nearly all the un-irrigated fields in Quirpini had been abandoned. 278 · Notes to pages 39–50 7. In the Spanish colonies, criollo was a term applied to those of Spanish descent born in the Americas; this class of people comprised most of the local administration and held great economic power but was always politically subordinate to peninsulares, or those who came from Spain itself. In the Andes, both groups had higher status and greater power then indios (those of indigenous extraction) and mestizos (those of mixed Spanish and indigenous ancestry). The wave of early-nineteenth-century struggles over independence that led to the independence of most of Spain’s American colonies are generally taken as a seizure of power by criollos, who became, and have largely remained, the dominant political and economic group in the new na­tions. 8. For more extensive information on the relation of the San Lucas region and the Quillaca Federation, see Abercrombie 1998. Unless otherwise indicated, I draw on Abercrombie for information about the region’s colonial history. 9. ThereappearstobenorecordoftheyearinwhichSanLucaswasfounded,asmanyhistoricaldocumentswerelostwhenthetownwasburnedbySpanishsoldiersduringtheWarofIndepen dence .Thislacunatroubledsomeofthemorehistoricallymindedtownspeople.Furthermore,itis not completely clear that the town of San Lucas is sited on the location of the original reducción. A few kilometers below San Lucas, there are ruins of what appears to have been a village; some residents believe that this was the original location of the town, perhaps abandoned after it was burned in the war. 10. One example is the “vertical ecology” described above. 11. Larson (1998:chap. 3) discusses the impact of mita on indigenous mobility. 12. For a general account of the mid-century social and political transformations in Bolivia, see Malloy 1970. 13. For contrasting accounts of the relationship between indigenous campesinos and town elites, see Abercrombie 1998 and Gose 1994. 14. These are mostly used during the rainy season, when a heavy downpour can turn the streets into raging streams. 15. While I was doing my fieldwork the court bought the house of a nonresident elite family and moved its offices there. 16. Early in my fieldwork a member of the town elite told me that she had heard from a campesina that I was “nice” because I responded when campesinos greeted me. I took this to mean that members of the elite felt no need to respond to the polite greetings of campesinos, and that the latter noticed and resented this behavior. 17. Thispracticeseemedtometohavesomethingtodowiththeconviction,amongbothelites and campesinos, that members of the other group were lazy (qhilla in Quechua, flojo in Spanish). Campesinos rarely saw elites doing manual labor, and elites spent much of their time exhorting campesinos to work. 18. For...


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