Index
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225 Index Page numbers in bold refer to photo captions. Abu-Lughod, Lila, 19, 112, 197n15 Advisory Committee on Polio Eradication, 137 Afghanistan, 1, 20, 117 and cross-border strategies, 42 refugees from, 201n5 and timeline for eradication, 165 transmission in, 13, 35, 41 Africa, 9, 31, 129, 176 sub-Saharan, 29, 39–40 Aga Khan Health Services, 193, 205n14 Alma-Ata Declaration, 207n8 Annan, Kofi, 40 anthropology, 7, 22, 116, 124, 208n12 development, 6, 8–9, 10, 12, 145 ethics of, 19 and global health programs, 7–11, 195n2 medical, 1–2, 12, 19–20 and multi-sited ethnography, 15, 16, 19, 20 political, 10, 185 and reflexive turn, 197n15 and resistance, 122 See also cultural scapegoating area in charge. See district level Arita, Isao, 162, 163 Aylward, Bruce, 34, 165, 168 Azam, Mohammad, 141 Bakarwals, 76. See also vaccination campaigns Bangladesh, 40, 196n9 coercive tactics in, 158 mortality rates in, 205n12 and smallpox eradication, 156–57 Banu, Rahima, 157 Barrett, Stanley, 125 Brazil, 32, 36, 39, 182, 198n13 Briggs, Charles, 3–4 Brilliant, Lawrence, 153, 154–55, 156, 160, 206n4 and culture of optimism, 169 Bryant, John, 26 Buffett, Warren, 9 campaigns. See vaccination campaigns Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), 17 Carter Center, 31 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5, 135, 136 culture of optimism at, 46, 168 and global project, 47, 127 interviews at, 18–19 and Measles Initiative, 131, 132, 176 and Polio Eradication Initiative, 39 and political will, 185 structural power of, 137 technical role of, 47, 140, 187 and volunteers, 57, 101 Chan, Margaret, 25, 32, 163, 168, 207n6 and malaria eradication, 177 Chapin, Charles V., 27 Chaudhry, Iftikhar Muhammad, 14 children. See coverage: and missed children; vaccination campaigns: and missed children China, 13, 40, 199n25 eradication in, 51, 187–88 chloroquine, 29, 207n5. See also malaria cholera, 3–4 climate, 13, 199n27 as factor in transmission, 20, 42, 43, 111, 148 Cochi, Steve, 137 coercion, 66, 143, 161, 162 and Smallpox Eradication, 31, 155, 157 Colgrove, James, 111 226 Chasing Polio in Pakistan colonialism, legacies of, 110, 125, 202n11 corruption, 4, 7, 21, 102–5, 149, 183. See also district level; resistance cost-benefit analysis. See eradication: economic benefits of coverage, 75, 83, 85, 97, 148–49 districtwide, problems of, 191 and falsification of data, 89, 91, 97, 196n13, 201n5 and missed children, 97, 111. See also vaccination campaigns: and missed children and mobile populations, 8, 73–74, 146, 195n4, 200n6 and other immunizations, 36, 39, 148, 149, 165, 181 and post-campaign monitoring, 57, 77–78, 79–90, 95, 97–98; external monitors and, 79–80, 90–92, 115– 17, 118 in prohibited areas, 117–18 and surveillance system, 3–4, 205n18 See also district level; vaccination campaigns Cuba, 36 cultural scapegoating, 2, 3–5, 9, 104 culture, 1, 4, 152, 159 alienation from, 115, 116, 143 differences in, 157 of eradication programs, 22, 50, 157, 159, 160 of experimentation, 30, 157, 159–60 knowledge of, 2–3 culture of optimism, 20, 21, 42–46, 167–70 and campaign methods, 50–51 and constraints of partnership, 175 contributions to, 174–75, 177 as mask for problems, 22 and monovalent vaccine use, 141 and objective analysis, 52, 168, 196n7 and political will, 185–86 and relationship with governments, 176 resistance to, 192 and spin control, 47, 133 Dahlem Workshop (1999), 184, 197n2 DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), 29, 30, 32, 207n5. See also malaria decentralization. See Health, Ministry of Department for International Development (DFID) (United Kingdom), 17, 47, 48. See also United Kingdom de Quadros, Ciro, 36–37, 38, 39, 173, 174 development programs, 6, 202n8 and anthropologists, 7–8 anthropology of, 9–10 and corruption, 102–5 as cultural system, 8–9, 17, 18 and elimination of poverty, 169–70 and ideal model, 124–25 and policy design, 143 and power structures, 12, 145 and primary health care, 30 and relationship with governments, 144–46 and smallpox eradication, 152 and structural challenges, 104 See also hiding hand diarrhea, 14, 74, 75, 199n27, 200n7 and HeaLYs, 204n6 disease, 3–4, 9 control of, 14, 25–26, 158, 178 elimination of, 26, 28, 32, 35, 36–40, 197n3 and mortality rates, 128, 129, 174, 204n6, 205n12 See also eradication; Measles Initiative district level, 5–6, 118, 195n5 area in charge, 51, 59, 67, 70–72, 78, 79; and falsification of data, 55–56, 81, 83, 87, 88, 100; pay rate of, 51, 60, 69, 105, 108; resistance by, 68, 86, 88, 99 employee attitudes, 109...


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