restricted access Essay on Sources
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These abbreviations are used below: IHT (International Herald Tribune), NYT (New York Times), PD (Plain Dealer [Cleveland]), WSJ (Wall Street Journal). Chapter 1. “Less Than We Think” What Are We Talking about When We Talk about Globalization? The word habitus is used by Pierre Bourdieu in Homo Academicus, trans. P. Collier (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1988), 194–227, to describe a culturally speci fic way not only of speaking and doing things, but of seeing, thinking, and categorizing . Habitus tends to be “naturalized.” It is taken for granted or assimilated into the unconscious, so it becomes the context of action and shared understanding . The passages cited by Fredric Jameson are from his essay in The Cultures of Globalization (Durham: Duke University Press, 1998), which he edited with Masao Miyoshi.Thomas Friedman has written often on globalization,most notably The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor, 2000) and The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). James Brooke wrote about the red bull in “Merrill Lynch’s Rush into Japan Ends in Rout,” IHT, December 15–16, 2001, and Niku’s name problems were described in the “Digits” column of WSJ on July 22, 2004. Stacy Perman detailed the decline of Levi’s in “Levi’s Gets the Blues,” Time, November 17, 1997. Is English Conquering the World? Nicholas Wade summarized the paleolinguistic research of Russell D. Gray and Quentin Atkinson, first reported in Nature, November 2003, in “A Biological Dig for the Roots of Language,” NYT, March 15, 2004. The origins of Bahasa Indonesia are detailed in Raymond G. Gordon Jr., ed., Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. (Dallas: SIL International, 2004), and at http://en.wikipedia Essay on Sources .org/wiki/Indonesian_language. It is based on the Riau Malay spoken in northeast Sumatra, which was the language of only 7 percent of the nation’s speakers at independence in 1945, when it officially came into being. It takes vocabulary from Dutch, Portuguese, Chinese, and Arabic, as well as Javanese and other local languages. The articles by Madelaine Drohan and Alan Freeman and Joshua A. Fishman are collected in Patrick O’Meara, Howard D. Mehlinger, and Matthew Krain, eds., Globalization and the Challenges of a New Century (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000). For consistency’s sake, the language figures are all from Sidney S. Culbert, University of Washington, World Almanac, 1980, 1990, and 1999. The latter was the last year that he supplied these figures. Subsequently most estimates have depended on Ethnologue, whose numbers are significantly lower all around but which show the same trends. The discrepancy between these two sources is most obvious in the largest language groups; in Mandarin, for example, the difference between the two sources is 130 million speakers. For Arabic, World Almanac stopped listing an aggregate figure after Culbert ceased to report the figures. Newer figures from Ethnologue break out Arabic into categories (e.g., Moroccan Arabic, Sudanese Arabic, etc.), which makes it impossible to say in exactly how many overseas nations “Arabic” is spoken or by how many people. My figure is a conservative guess. For analysis of the U.S. Census figures, see Janny Scott, “Census Shows Big Increase in Foreign-Born U.S. Citizens,” NYT, February 8, 2002, and Genaro C. Armas, Associated Press, “Non-English Languages Spoken in 1 of 5 Homes,” PD, October 9, 2003. The use of English in Brazil was reported by the AP, “Brazilian Solon Wants to Give English the Boot,” Daily Yomiuri (Japan), October 29, 2000. English loanwords appear in the Macmillan English dictionary, available on line at www.macmillandictionary.com/MED-Magazine/april2003/06-languageinterference -loan-words.htm. David Puttnam writes about the benshi in Movies and Money (New York: Knopf, 1998) and Will Ferguson’s ESL stories are in Hokkaido Highway Blues (Edinburgh: Cannongate,1998). The Ubiquitous American Film Key books for understanding the history of U.S. film exports are Kristin Thompson’s Exporting Entertainment: America in the World Film Market, 1907– 1934 (London: British Film Institute, 1986), and Thomas Guback, The International Film Industry (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1969). Much of my understanding of protectionism and runaway production comes from David Puttnam’s Movies and Money.John Izod offers an excellent overview of howVHS and DVD and overseas box office have changed Hollywood in Hollywood and the Box Office (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). John Cones, a lawyer, has written the most detailed book on the headspinning complexity of The...


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