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Bibliography The bibliography that follows includes all sources, original and published, that have been used in preparation of this book and cited in the notes. However, on its own the listing may not provide readers with all the information they may wish. For that reason, a brief prefatory essay may serve two helpful purposes. First, it aims to give a fuller description of the archival materials that make up the backbone of this study. Second, it hopes to sketch a serviceable if necessarily incomplete guide to the basic published literature in the two fields brought together in the monograph : the history of Poland in the first half of the twentieth century, and that of the Catholic Church in the same period. Some readers may come from one of these areas of interest without being fully acquainted with the other. Mainly for their benefit, I will suggest a selection of titles that can supply valuable relevant background information, primarily those in English, and emphasizing the general, rather than the more specialized, works that appear most frequently in the notes. Entries in Polish are identified by their equivalents in English as well; for those in other languages, the assumption is that the original will do. Archival Sources This book is based largely on evidence gathered from unpublished Polish governmental and ecclesiastical documents residing in archives located in Poland or scattered to other lands by war and emigration. The Archiwum Akt Nowych (Archive of New Documents) in Warsaw holds the records of the two departments of the interwar Polish state that had most to do with the Catholic Church at home and abroad: the Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and the Ministerstwo Wyznań Religijnych i Oświecenia Publicznego (Ministry of Religious Bodies and Public Education). The papers of the Polish Embassy to the Holy See are found within the collections of the Instytut Historyczny im. Generała Sikorskiego (General Sikorski Historical Institute) in London, the base of the Polish Government in Exile. A microfilm copy of this same file, though difficult to read for technical reasons, may be examined at the Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford , California. There is no centralized archive of official documents of the Catholic Church in Poland, or of the papers of its leaders. Instead, each diocese is responsible for maintaining its own historical records and organizing them for the use of researchers. In some cases, much was lost in the massive destruction of World War II. Maria Dębowska, ed., Archiwa Kościoła katolickiego w Polsce: Informator (Catholic Church Archives in Poland: A Guide) (Kielce: Jedność, 2002) provides a thorough directory of these repositories. In the Archdiocesan Archiwum Kurii Metropolitalnej (Archive of the Metropolitan Curia) of Kraków, the extensive papers of Cardinal Sapieha are essential. So is the Archive of the Primates of Poland at the Archiwum Archidiecezjalne w Gnieźnie (Archdiocesan Archive in Gniezno). The Archiwum Archidiecezjalne w Poznaniu (Archdiocesan Archive in Poznań) possesses the Acta Hlondiana, featuring the correspondence of Cardinal Hlond. The main attraction of the Archiwum Archidiecezjalne Warszawskie (Archdiocesan Archive of Warsaw ) is the instructive typescript memoir of Cardinal Kakowski, “Z niewoli do niepodległości” (From Bondage to Independence). Of course, the indispensable resource for the policies of the papacy is the Archivio Segreto Vaticano, Vatican City. An aura of mystery surrounds this “Secret Archive,” deriving both from its deceptively forbidding name and from the widespread suspicion that its main function is to hide from public view unflattering truths about the history of the Church. In fact, it is an archive like any other, no more restrictive than most—though none can match the combination of the vastness and antiquity of its holdings and the splendor of its setting within the Apostolic Palace. Owen Chadwick, Catholicism and History: The Opening of the Vatican Archives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), is a fascinating account of the transformation of the Archive from the confidential historical memory of the popes into a treasure house for historians. In 2006, Pope Benedict XVI, responding to intense curiosity about the role of the Holy See in the run-up to the Second World War, declared the files of the Secret Archive dating from the pontificate of Pius XI (1922–39) open to access for the first time. In the collections of the Secretariat of State, important documents touching on Poland usually made their way into the records of the Congregation of Extraordinary Church Affairs. By comparison, the papers of the Papal Nunciature in Warsaw tend to...


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