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587 Glossary abhāva nonperception (in the Nyāya system); nonbeing (in the Vaiśeṣika system). abhaya fearlessness; in iconology: abhaya mudrā is the hand gesture of a deity, inspiring confidence and trust. abhiniveṣa desire; in the Yoga system: instinctive craving for life. abhiṣeka anointment, part of installation ceremony of a king and an image of the deity. abhyāsa exercise, practice, exertion. abhyudaya rising of sun or other heavenly bodies; festival. ācamana rinsing of mouth with water before worship and before meals. acara immobile (an attribute of the Supreme Being). ācārya master (used today as equivalent to MA). acetana without consciousness (an attribute of matter). acintya beyond intellectual understanding. ādāna taking away. adbhuta marvelous, miraculous. adharma unrighteousness, evil. adhidevatā a presiding deity. adhikāra qualification (especially of students of religion). adhikāraṇa section of a textbook; topic of a single work. adhiyajña principal sacrifice. adhyāsa superimposition; misidentification. adhyātma supreme; spiritual; relating to the Supreme Being. adhyāya chapter (of a treatise). aditi Vedic Goddess, Mother Earth, mother of adityas. 588 A SURV EY OF HINDUISM ādivāsi original inhabitants; appellation of tribals. adṛṣṭa invisible; important technical term in the Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika systems as well as in linguistic speculation. advaita nonduality; name of a school of Vedānta. ādya prakṛti primeval matter. āgama source, beginning; name of a class of writings that are considered as revealed by the Śaivas. aghora horrible: name of a sect of Śaivites. agni fire; one of the foremost Vedic gods. agnicayana a particular kind of Vedic fire sacrifice. agnihotra a Vedic fire sacrifice. agniṣṭoma fire sacrifice. ahaṁkāra principle of individuation; egotism. ahiṃsā not killing; nonviolence. ahita improper, unwholesome, not propitious. aiśvarya lordliness. aja unborn (m); attribute of Supreme Being; he-goat. ajā unborn (f), attribute of Primordial Matter; she-goat. akala without parts; attribute of Supreme Being. akāma without desire. ākāśa ether (one of the five elements of Indian cosmology); space. ākhyāna bhāga narrative part of a sacred text. akhāḍā place of assembly; principal territorial center of some sects. akhila undivided; complete. akṛti uncreated; eternal principle underlying words, and so forth. akṣara imperishable; syllable (letter); attribute of Supreme Being. alaṁkāra ornament; technical term for ornate literature. amara immortal. amarṣa impatience; anger; passion. aṃbikā mother; Mother Goddess. amṛta nectar; draught of immortality. aṃśa part, fragment. anādhāra without support. anādi without beginning; eternal. ānanda bliss; used as last part of the proper name of many samnyāsis e.g., Vivekānanda: he who finds his bliss in discrimination. GLOSSARY 589 ananta without end; proper name of the world snake upon which Viṣṇu rests. aṇava veil; congenital ignorance concerning the ultimate; stain. aṅga member, constituent part, e.g., of a major work. aṇimā smallness; in Yoga the faculty to diminish one’s size. aniruddha free, without hindrance; proper name of one of the vyūhas of Viṣṇu. anitya not permanent; transient. añjali a handful, e.g., puṣpāñjali: a handful of flowers. aṅkuśa goad; one of the divine weapons. anna food, especially rice; formerly sixteenth part of a rupee. anṛta against the (moral) law. anta end, death. antarātman conscience. antaryāmi the “inner ruler,” the Supreme Being as present in the heart. antyeṣṭi last rites. aṇu atom. anubhava experience. anugraha attraction; grace of God. anumāna inference. apara unsurpassed; attribute of the Supreme Being. aparādha fault, sin. aparādha kṣamāpañca prayer for forgiveness of faults. aparigraha without having (and wanting) possessions. aparokṣa immediate, present. apas water. apāśraya supportless. apauruṣeya not human-made; technical term to describe the supernatural origin of the Veda in the Mīmāṃsā system. āpsara nymph. apūrva technical term in the Mīmāṃsā system to denote the not-yet realized effect of a sacrifice. araṇya forest. arcā rites of worship before an image. arcāvatāra image of God, who took on this form in order to become an object of worship for the devotees. ardha half. 590 A SURV EY OF HINDUISM ardhanārīśvara figurative representation of Śiva, in which one half shows a male figure, the other a female one. arghya water to rinse hands before worship or before meals. arjuna bright; proper name of hero in the Bhagavadgītā. arka sun. artha...