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v Contents List of Illustrations ix Preface to the Third Edition xiii List of Abbreviations xv Note on Transliteration and Pronunciation xvii Introduction 1 PART I HINDUISM: SOURCES AND WORLDVIEW 15 Chapter One The Beginnings of Hinduism 17 Chapter Two Hindu Dharma: Orthodoxy and Heresy in Hinduism 30 Chapter Three The Veda: Revelation and Scripture in Hinduism 45 Chapter Four Itihāsa Purāṇa: The Heart of Hinduism 59 Chapter Five The Bhagavadgītā 74 Chapter Six The World of the Hindu 86 Chapter Seven The Many Gods and the One God of Hinduism 101 PART II TRIMĀRGA: THE THREE HINDU PATHS TO LIBERATION 119 Chapter Eight The Path of Works: Karmamārga 122 Chapter Nine Purity and Merit: The Twin Concerns of Karmamārga 136 Chapter Ten Saṃskāras: The Hindu Sacraments 147 Chapter Eleven The Path of Knowledge: Jñānamārga 156 Chapter Twelve Ātman and Brahman: Self and All 166 v i A SURV EY OF HINDUISM Chapter Thirteen Karma, Vidyā, Mokṣa: Liberation from Rebirth 173 Chapter Fourteen The Path of Loving Devotion: Bhaktimārga 181 Chapter Fifteen Lord Viṣṇu and His Devotees 198 Chapter Sixteen Śiva: The Grace and the Terror of God 218 Chapter Seventeen Devī: The Divine Mother 232 Chapter Eighteen Mudalvan, Murukan, Māl: The Great Gods of the Tamils 248 PART III THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORTS OF HINDUISM 261 Chapter Nineteen The Divine Presence in Space and Time: Mūrti, Tīrtha, Kāla 263 Chapter Twenty The Hindu Social Order: Caturvarṇāśramadharma 288 Chapter Twenty-One Saṃnyāsa: The Highest Hindu Aspiration 298 Chapter Twenty-Two Strīdharma: The Position of Women in Hinduism 311 Chapter Twenty-Three Hindu Structures of Thought: The Ṣaḍdarśanas 325 Chapter Twenty-Four Hindu Logic and Physics: Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika 333 Chapter Twenty-Five Hindu Metaphysics and Psychology: Sāṁkhya-Yoga 342 Chapter Twenty-Six Hindu Theology, Old and New: Mīmāṃsā and Vedānta 351 PART IV HINDUISM ENCOUNTERING THE “OTHER” 369 Chapter Twenty-Seven Hinduism and Buddhism 371 Chapter Twenty-Eight Hinduism and Christianity in India 381 Chapter Twenty-Nine Hindus and Muslims in India 394 Chapter Thirty Hindu Reforms and Reformers 410 Chapter Thirty-One Mahātmā Gandhi: A Twentieth-Century Karmayogi 429 Chapter Thirty-Two Hindūtva—Hinduism—Hindu dharma 441 PART V MISCELLANY 455 Chapter Thirty-Three India and the West 456 Chapter Thirty-Four Hinduism and Science 466 CONT ENTS v ii Chapter Thirty-Five Hinduism and Ecology 476 Chapter Thirty-Six Hindu Measures of Time 490 Chapter Thirty-Seven Indian Chronology 497 Maps 509 Notes 513 Glossary 587 Bibliography 611 Index 661 This page intentionally left blank. ...


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