restricted access Appendix D
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Intellectual pluralism and academic freedom are central principles of American higher education. Recently, these issues have captured the attention of the media, political leaders, and those in the academy. This is not the first time in the nation’s history that these issues have become public controversies , but the current interest in intellectual discourse on campus suggests that the meaning of these terms, and the rights and responsibilities of individual members of the campus community, should be reiterated. Without question, academic freedom and intellectual pluralism are complex topics with multiple dimensions that affect both students and faculty. Moreover, America’s colleges and universities vary enormously, making it impossible to create a single definition or set of standards that will work equally well for all fields of academic study and all institutions in all circumstances . Individual campuses must give meaning and definition to these concepts within the context of disciplinary standards and institutional mission. Despite the difficulty of prescribing a universal definition, we believe that there are some central, overarching principles that are widely shared within the academic community and deserve to be stated affirmatively as a basis for discussion of these issues on campuses and elsewhere. American higher education is characterized by a great diversity of institutions , each with its own mission and purpose. This diversity is a central feature and strength of our colleges and universities and must be valued and proAppendix D American Council on Education Statement on Academic Rights and Responsibilities 236 ch14-appendix D 6/30/08 10:50 AM Page 236 tected. The particular purpose of each school, as defined by the institution itself, should set the tone for the academic activities undertaken on campus. Colleges and universities should welcome intellectual pluralism and the free exchange of ideas. Such a commitment will inevitably encourage debate over complex and difficult issues about which individuals will disagree. Such discussions should be held in an environment characterized by openness, tolerance , and civility. Academic decisions including grades should be based solely on considerations that are intellectually relevant to the subject matter under consideration. Neither students nor faculty should be disadvantaged or evaluated on the basis of their political opinions. Any member of the campus community who believes he or she has been treated unfairly on academic matters must have access to a clear institutional process by which his or her grievance can be addressed. The validity of academic ideas, theories, arguments, and views should be measured against the intellectual standards of relevant academic and professional disciplines. Application of these intellectual standards does not mean that all ideas have equal merit. The responsibility to judge the merits of competing academic ideas rests with colleges and universities and is determined by reference to the standards of the academic profession as established by the community of scholars at each institution. Government’s recognition and respect for the independence of colleges and universities is essential for academic and intellectual excellence. Because colleges and universities have great discretion and autonomy over academic affairs, they have a particular obligation to ensure that academic freedom is protected for all members of the campus community and that academic decisions are based on intellectual standards consistent with the mission of each institution. June 23, 2005 The following organizations have endorsed this statement: American Association of Community Colleges American Association of State Colleges and Universities American Association of University Professors American Council on Education American Dental Education Association American Political Science Association Association of American Colleges and Universities ACE Statement on Academic Rights and Responsibilities 237 ch14-appendix D 6/30/08 10:50 AM Page 237 Association of American Law Schools Association of American Universities Association of Catholic Colleges and Universities Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities The College Board College Student Educators International College and University Professional Association for Human Resources Council for Advancement and Support of Education Council for Christian Colleges and Universities Council for Higher Education Accreditation Council for Opportunity in Education Council of Graduate Schools Council of Independent Colleges EDUCAUSE National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges National Association of Student Personnel Administrators University Continuing Education Association 238 ACE Statement on Academic Rights and Responsibilities ch14-appendix D 6/30/08 10:50 AM Page 238 ...


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