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185 Notes Introduction 1. Nekrasov, Sobranie sochinenii v vos’mi tomakh, 1: 359. 2. Child labor is described in A. Chekhov’s story “Spat’ Khochetsia”; in Maxim Gorky’s novels Mat’, V liudiakh, and other works; in E. Nechiaev’s poem “Gudok”; in the novels of A. Kuprin (V nedrakh zemli) and L. Serafimovich (Pod prazdnik); and in the works of many other poets and writers of the time. 3. Cited in Pazhitnov, Polozhenie, 2: 28. 4. For a discussion of child labor in general, see Hobbs et al., Child Labor. On child labor in England, see Horn, Victorian and Edwardian Schoolchild; Nardinelli, Child Labor; Horn et al., Children’s Work and Welfare; Tuttle, Hard at Work; Kirby, Child Labor. Child labor in France is discussed in Heywood, Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France; and Weissbach , Child Labor Reform. For a bibliography on child labor in the United States, see Hindman , Child Labor. On child labor in the developing world, see Rodgers and Standing, Child Work, Poverty and Underdevelopment; Post, Children’s Work, Schooling and Welfare. 5. For examples of this interpretation, see Fuller, “Child Labor”; Thompson, Making of the English Working Class; Hammond and Hammond, Town Labourer. 6. Walvin, Child’s World, 64. 7. Thompson, Making of the English Working Class, 349. 8. For these views, see Hartwell, Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. 9. For further discussion, see Nardinelli, Child Labor, 98 (quotation on 102). 10. See Horrell and Humphries, “‘Exploitation of Little Children.’” 11. Andreev, Rabota. Other late imperial historians also explore various aspects of child factory labor. Tugan-Baranovsky, e.g., discusses the 1845 child labor law in Russian Factory. For the Russian-language edition, see Tugan-Baranovsky, Russkaia fabrika v proshkom i nastoiashchem. E. M. Dement’ev also discusses some aspects of child labor in his Fabrika. 12. Gessen, Trud; Gessen, Istoriia zakonodatel’stva. Child labor in imperial Russia is also discussed in Zaitsev, Polozhenie; Kirov, Na zare. The issue of children’s employment in industries is also mentioned in many Russian-language studies on workers and the labor movement. In this literature, however, the issue did not receive any specific analysis . The only recent Russian-language account of child labor is an essay by N. I. Enalieva, 186    Notes to Pages 4–17 whose interest is education. This seven-page general overview, whose usefulness is limited by a lack of references, has been translated into English. See Enalieva, “Child Labor and Industrial Apprenticeship in Russia.” 13. See Zelnik, Labor and Society; Zelnik, Law and Disorder on the Narova River, 26, 72, 132, 169, 174, 228–29. 14. Melancon, Lena Goldfields Massacre. 15. Kelly, Children’s World, 3. 16. Here is where my findings modify Kelly’s suggestion about the beginnings of child-related discourse in public, professional, and state institutions. 17. Marxist-inspired scholarship that underscores class includes, among others, Reichman, Railway Men and Revolution; Surh, 1905 in St. Petersburg; Zelnik, Labor and Society; Johnson, Peasant and Proletarian. For an overview of Russian-language scholarship , see Pankratova, Formirovanie proletariata v Rossii; Rashin, Formirovanie. 18. For this scholarship, see, among others, Glickman, Russian Factory Women; Engel , Between the Fields and the City. Chapter 1 1. Gmelin, Reise durch Sibirien, cited in Pazhitnov, Polozhenie, 1: 56. 2. Pallas, Puteshestviia po raznym provintsiiam Rossiiskago gosudarstva, cited in Pazhitnov , Polozhenie, 1: 56. 3. For a discussion of the origins of child labor in France, see Weissbach, Child Labor Reform, chap. 1; Heywood, Childhood, 34. 4. Gromyko, Mir russkoi derevni, 106. 5. For example, Colin Heywood emphasizes the poor conditions of peasant families in France as a principal source of child labor in the French countryside. See Heywood, Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France, 38. 6. Gromyko, Trudovye traditsii russkikh krest’ian Sibiri, 4–5; Minenko, Russkaia, 117. 7. For further examples of children’s collective names, see Bernshtam, Molodezh, 25, 122. 8. Aries, Centuries of Childhood, 47. 9. For discussion of this issue, see Bernshtam, Molodezh, 24–25. 10. Shangina, Russkie deti i ikh igry, 7. 11. Baklanova, Krest’ianskii, 23. 12. Baklanova, Krest’ianskii, 23, 41–42; Bernshtam, Molodezh, 123; Aleksandrov, Sel’skaia obshchina v Rossii, 206–7; Lenin, Razvitie kapitalizma v Rossii, 3: 325. 13. Baklanova, Krest’ianskii, 22 (table 6). 14. Mironov, Sotsial’naia istoriia Rossii, 1: 20, 129, 180. 15. Mironov, Sotsial’naia istoriia Rossii, 199–200; Baklanova, Krest’ianskii, 23. 16. Minge-Kalman, “Industrial Revolution”; Bernshtam, Molodezh, 57–58; Gromyko, Mir russkoi derevni, 107; Minenko, Russkaia, 51–52. 17. Gorshkov, Life under Russian Serfdom. 18. Martynova...


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