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181 Appendix Documents 1845 Decree on Children’s Employment1 19262—August 7. Decree approved by his Imperial Highness of the Committee of Ministers and published on September 13.—On the prohibition of entrepreneurs to employ children under the age of twelve for nighttime work. The Governing Senate heard the report of the Minister of Finances, which stated that some businesses conduct work during the day and night and that nighttime work is particularly burdensome for underage workers. In order to alleviate the latter, and following the provisions of the Committee of Ministers, the Sovereign Emperor . . . decreed: owners of business that conduct nighttime work are required to sign memorandums that oblige them not to employ children below twelve years of age from midnight to six a.m. The supervision of this law’s compliance is to be laid on the local officials. Reporting His Highnesses Will to the Governing Senate , the Minister will give on his behalf orders to implement [His Will]. Decree Approved by His Imperial Highness on the 1st day of June of 1882—On the opinion of the State Council about the measures of restriction of work of children and juveniles in factories, works, and other industrial units and about their education.2 I. In the change of and addition to the appropriate articles of the Law Code about children of both sexes who work in factories, plants, and manufacturing establishments that belong to private individuals and 182    Appendix: Documents organizations (societies, associations, and companies), as well as to the state, the following rules are introduced: 1. Children under the age of twelve are not allowed for employment. 2. Children between the ages of twelve and fifteen cannot work more than eight hours a day, not including time for breakfast, lunch, and dinner ; attendance at school; and rest. Their work cannot last more than four consecutive hours. 3. Children under the age of fifteen cannot work between nine p.m. and five a.m., as well as on Sundays and major holidays. 4. The children mentioned in Article 3 are prohibited from employment in such industries or for single works that are parts of these industries that are by their nature harmful or recognized as exhausting for health. The list of such industries and occupations . . . is to be defined by the mutual agreement of the Finance and Interior ministries. . . . 5. The owners of factories, plants, and manufacturing establishments are required to provide their working children who have no diploma at least the one-class program of public or its equivalent school with no less than three hours a day or eighteen hours a week in order to attend said schools. II. In order to control the implementation of the regulations of labor and education of child workers, a special inspection is introduced on the following grounds: 1. Regarding the control over work and education of child workers, the areas with industries are to be divided into special districts. Their number, as well as the arrangement of provinces and areas within each district, is to be approved by law. 2. Depending on the necessity, each district has one or several inspectors . The general supervision over all districts is handed over to the chief inspector. This inspectorate is placed under the authority of the Ministry of Finance’s Trade and Manufacture Department. 3. The district inspectors are responsible to the chief inspector and relate to the provincial and local authorities on the same basis as all other officials of the Finance Ministry who belong to the provincial government . . . . 4. Inspectors are obliged to (1) oversee compliance with the laws on child labor and the education of working children; (2) file with the local police protocols about violations of the said laws and submit these protocols to the appropriate legal institutions; and (3) bring to court persons responsible for violations. . . . Appendix: Documents    183 5. Detailed provisions for responsibilities and procedures are set up in a special instruction to be approved by the Ministry of Finance with the agreement of the ministries of the Interior and Education. 6. The authority of the inspectorate . . . does not extend to factories , plants, and manufacturing establishments that belong to the state or government. Control over labor and education of children employed in these enterprises is given to those appointed persons who manage them. III. The provisions of Part One are to be enacted on May 1, 1883. Accidents of Working Children Recorded by the Local District Police Offices in Moscow Accidents at the Wool Cloth Factory...


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