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Notes Guide to Abbreviations in Notes AMM—Anthracite Mining Museum, Scranton APP—Archivum Panstowe Miasta Poznania i Wojewodztwa Poznanskiego BA—Bergamt BAD—Bergamt Dortmund BAH—Bergamt Herne BBA—Bochum Bergbau Museum Archive BR—Bergrat BRD—Bergrat Dortmund BRH—Bergrat Herne Coxe—Coxe Family Papers CPNCC—Collections of the Polish National Catholic Church CUA—Catholic University of America Archives DHP—Daniel Hastings Papers ESC—Ethnic Studies Collections HSP—Historical Society of Pennsylvania HSTAD—Hauptstaatsarchiv Düsseldorf JMP—John Mitchell Papers LA—Landesamt LAM—Landesamt Moers LR—Landrat LRB—Landrat Bochum LRD—Landrat Dortmund LRG—Landrat Gelsenkirchen LRH—Landrat Hattingen LRR—Landrat Recklinghausen MdI—Minister des Innern MG—Manuscript Group OBD—Oberbergamt Dortmund OPRP—Oberpräsident der Rhein Provinz, Koblenz OPW—Oberpräsident der Provinz Westfalen, Münster PDB—Polizeidirektor Bochum PHMC—Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission PP—Polizeipräsident PPB—Polizeipräsident Bochum 176 l Notes to Pages 1–2 PPE—Polizeipräsident Essen PV—Polizeiverwaltung RA—Regierung Arnsberg RD—Regierung Düsseldorf Rep.—Report RG—Record Group RM—Regierung Münster RPA—Regierung Präsident Arnsberg RPD—Regierung Präsident Düsseldorf RPM—Regierung Präsident Münster SOHP—Scranton Oral History Project SPP—Samuel Pennypacker Papers STAM—Staatsarchiv Münster StB—Stadtarchiv Bochum StG—Stadtarchiv Gelsenkirchen StO—Stadtarchiv Oberhausen WSP—William Stone Papers Introduction: Migration and Citizenship in a Globalizing World 1. Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (London: Macmillan, 1996). 2. “The United Nations on Levels and Trends of International Migration and Related Policies,” Population and Development Review 29, no. 2 (2003): 335–40; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Economic and Social Survey: International Migration (New York: United Nations Publishing Section , 2004); “In a World on the Move, A Tiny Land Strains to Cope,” New York Times, June 24, 2007. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2009: Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009), 1–2. Globally, the number of internal migrants, i.e., those who move inside their own country, is conservatively estimated to be 740 million as of 2009. This means that worldwide, approximately one in seven persons have had some experience of migration in their lifetime. 3. Peter Schuck and Rainer Münz, eds., Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany (New York: Berghahn Books, 1998); “Where the Minorities Rule,” New York Times, Feb. 10, 2002. Although the total number of legal immigrants in the United States has surpassed previous all-time highs, as a percentage of the population, immigration today remains below the historic high of 14 percent for the early 1900s. 4. For a broader discussion of this point see Larry Jones, ed., Crossing Boundaries : German and American Experiences with the Exclusion and Inclusion of Minorities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001). In particular, see Klaus Bade’s article, “Immigration, Naturalization, and Ethno-National Traditions in Germany from the Citizenship Law of 1913 to the Law of 1999,” in the same volume. Notes to Pages 3–4 l 177 5. For assimilationist approaches see Robert Park, Race and Culture (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1950); Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People (Boston: Little, Brown, 1951); Milton Gordon, Assimilation in American Life (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1964). Charles Hirschman, “America’s Melting Pot Reconsidered,” Annual Review of Sociology 9 (1983): 397–423. The classic “reactive ethnicity” work remains Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes , Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish of New York City (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1963). In this vein, see also William L. Yancey, Eugene P. Eriksen, and Richard N. Juliani, “Emergent Ethnicity: A Review and Reformulation,” American Sociological Review 41, no. 3 (1976): 391–403; Susan Olzak, “Contemporary Ethnic Mobilization,” American Review of Sociology 9, no. 1 (1983): 367–68. 6. For a broader discussion of debates and changes in thinking about integration and assimilation during the 1990s and beyond see Herbert Gans, “Second Generation Decline: Scenarios for the Economic and Ethnic Futures of Post-1965 Immigrants,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 15, no. 2 (1992): 173–92; Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou, “The Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 530 (November 1993): 74–96; Richard Alba and Victor Nee, “Rethinking Assimilation Theory for a New Era of Immigration ,” International Migration Review 31, no. 4 (1997): 826...


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Subject Headings

  • Community life -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Ruhr River Valley (Germany) -- Ethnic relations.
  • Pennsylvania -- Ethnic relations.
  • Immigrants -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Polish Americans -- Cultural assimilation -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Polish people -- Cultural assimilation -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Community life -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Immigrants -- Pennsylvania -- History.
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