restricted access Guide to Pronunciation
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Guide to Pronunciation The following key provides a guide to the pronunciation of Polish words and names. a is pronounced as in father c as ts, as in cats ch as guttural h, as in German Bach cz as hard ch, as in church g (always hard), as in get i as ee, as in meet j as y, as in yellow rz as hard zh, as in French jardin sz as hard sh, as in ship szcz as hard shch, as in fresh cheese u as oo, as in boot w as v, as in vat ć as soft ch, as in cheap ś as soft sh, as in sheep ż as hard zh, as in French jardin ź as soft zh, as in seizure ó as oo, as in boot ą as a nasal, as in French on ę as a nasal, as in French en ł as w, as in way ń as ny, as in canyon The accent in Polish words almost always falls on the penultimate syllable. Partitioned Poland in the late nineteenth century E a s t P r u s s i a West Prussia Poznania S i l e s i a G a l i c i a Kashube s Masurians Kashubes Masurians G E R M A N E M P I R E A U S T R O - H U N G A R I A N E M P I R E R U S S I A N E M P I R E W a r s a w K a l i s z P i o t r k o w K i e l c e Ra d o m Lublin P ł o c k Ł o m ź a Siedlc e W i l n o G n o d n o Volhy nia M ins k K o v n o S u w a l k i B a l t i c S e a Berlin Warsaw Vienna Danzig/Gdańsk Posen/Poznań Torun/Thorn Lwów/Lviv Katowice Kraków Wilno/Vilnius Białystok Łódź Bydgosz Polish-speaking areas (late-19th century) Present-day boundary of Poland Minority group 0 100 mi The Ruhr industrial region R e g . B e z . M ü n s t e r R e g . B e z . A r n s b e r g R e g . B e z . D ü s s e l d o r f R H I N E L A N D W E S T P H A L I A Rhine R. R hine R . Emscher R. Ruhr River Lippe River Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Bochum Dortmund Wuppertal Münster Krefeld Oberhausen Gelsenkirchen Recklinghausen Langendreer Herne Wanne Bottrop Buer Hamm Arnsberg Hamborn N o r t h S e a Berlin Westphalia Rhineland G E R M A N Y 0 10 mi The anthracite regions of northeastern Pennsylvania Susquehanna R . Susquehanna R. Susquehanna R. Schuylkill R. B R A D F O R D S U S Q U E H A N N A S U L L I VA N W Y O M I N G LY C O M I N G MONTOUR N O R TH U M B E R LA N D C O L U M B I A L U Z E R N E L A C K A W A N N A S C H U Y L K I L L L E B A N O N D A U P H I N Y O R K L A N C A S T E R C H E S T E R B E R K S L E H I G H C A R B O N MONROE MONTGOMERY Mt. Carmel Ashland Shenandoah Mahanoy City Lebanon Reading Harrisburg Port Clinton Pottsville Allentown Shamokin Danville Bloomsburg Nanticoke Hazleton Plymouth Pittston Wilkes-Barre Carbondale Scranton Dunmore Dickson City Lehighton Mauch Chunk (Jim Thorpe) Forest City Lattimer A t l a n t i c O cean Outlined area shown in large map 0 Anthracite coal field 20 km 0 ...


Subject Headings

  • Community life -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Ruhr River Valley (Germany) -- Ethnic relations.
  • Pennsylvania -- Ethnic relations.
  • Immigrants -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Polish Americans -- Cultural assimilation -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Polish people -- Cultural assimilation -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Community life -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Immigrants -- Pennsylvania -- History.
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