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Abbreviations Alter Verband Verband zur Wahrung und Förderung der bergmännischen Interessen im Rheinland und Westfalen—Union for the Protection and Promotion of Miners’ Interests in Rhineland and Westphalia (Germany) AOH Ancient Order of Hibernians DL&W Delaware, Lackawanna, & Western Railroad Gewerkverein Gewerkverein christlicher Bergarbeiter—Christian Miners’ Union (Germany) IWW Industrial Workers of the World NCF National Civic Federation NPR Narodowa Partia Robotnicza—National Workers’ Party (Germany/Poland) NSR Narodowe Stronnictwo Robotników—National Party of Workers (Germany) P&R Philadephia & Reading Railroad PFA Związek Sokołów Polskich—Polish Falcons Alliance (USA) PNA Związek Narodowy Polski w Stanach Zjednoczonych Północnej Ameryki—Polish National Alliance in the United States of North America PNCC Polsko Narodowego Katolickiego Kościoła—Polish National Catholic Church (USA/Poland) PNU Polsko-Narodowa Spójnia—Polish National Union (USA) PPS Polska Partia Socjalistyczna—Polish Socialist Party (Germany/Poland) xviii l Abbreviations PRCU Zjednoczenie Polskie-Rzymsko-Katolickie—Polish Roman Catholic Union (USA) PWA Związek Polek—Polish Women’s Alliance (USA) Sokół (sg.), Sokoły (pl.) Falcon(s)—gymnastic association(s) for Polish young men SPD Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands UMW United Mine Workers of America WBA Workingmen’s Benevolent Association ZPwN Związek Polaków w Niemczech—Union of Poles in Germany ZZP Zjednoczenie Zawadowe Polski—Polish Trade Union (Germany/Poland) ...


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Subject Headings

  • Community life -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Ruhr River Valley (Germany) -- Ethnic relations.
  • Pennsylvania -- Ethnic relations.
  • Immigrants -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Polish Americans -- Cultural assimilation -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Polish people -- Cultural assimilation -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Community life -- Germany -- Ruhr River Valley -- History.
  • Coal miners -- Pennsylvania -- History.
  • Immigrants -- Pennsylvania -- History.
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