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contents Acknowledgments ix 1. Introduction: Labor Migration, Community, 1 and Family across Borders An Overview of the Book  4 Biographical Sketches of Xaripu Labor Migrants  10 2. Theoretical Perspectives on Labor Migration 27 Structural Perspectives  29 Transnational Perspectives  33 Internal Colonialism  39 Moving beyond Traditional Perspectives  44 Interactive Colonization  45 Methods  55 3. A Social-Historical Context of Xaripu’s Land Displacement and Labor Migration Experience 63 Origins of Xaripus  64 The Colonization of Michoacán (1521)  67 Mexican Independence (1810)  72 The Mexican Revolution (1910)  76 Agrarian Reform in Mexico (1917–1930s)  82 Bracero Period (1942–64)  87 Post-Bracero Period (1964–1980s)  93 Contextualizing Xaripus’ Labor Migration in the History   of Colonialism 97 4. The Logic of Colonialism in Modern Labor Relations 99 Colonial Labor in the Fields  100 Labor Conditions in California Agriculture  104 Out of the Fields  125 Race, Gender, and Colonialism in Modern Labor Relations  142 5. Haciendo Comunidad across Borders 145 Contextualizing and Conceptualizing Xaripu Transnationalism  146 Beyond Social Interaction: Convivir  153 Convivencia  154 Nepantla  163 Empowerment  174 The Challenge of Building a Cross-Border Community:  Global Inequalities 180 6. The Family across Borders: Exploring Gaps in Perception and Practice of Gender Empowerment 183 Perspectives on Gender Relations within Immigrant Families  184¿Quién Manda? (Who Has the Authority?)  191 The Division of Household Labor  199 The Impact of Transnationalism on Perceptions of Family  and Gender Equity 203 The Complexities of Gender Empowerment within  the Family across Borders 210 7. A Pueblo’s Search for Empowerment across Borders 213 Appendix 223 Notes 233 Works Cited 277 Index 309 viii Contents ...