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5. TOJO’S TESTIMONY 91 TOJO’S TESTIMONY Thischapterdescribesandanalyzesthebehaviouroftheinterpreters, monitors and language arbiter by focusing on the interpretation of the testimony given by General Hideki Tojo, who had been Prime Minister of Japan for most of the duration of the Pacific War (having taken office on October 18, 1941, and left office on July 18, 1944). The linguistic quality of the interpreting is not covered here, because the limited availability of the soundtrack of Tojo’s sessions makes microlinguistic analysis of intonations, hesitations, pauses and other features of actual speech impractical. Instead, the focus here is on how the linguists behaved: how the monitors addressed what they perceived as interpreting problems, what kind of spontaneous remarks, if any, the interpreters made, and how the language arbiter performed his role. The aim is to analyze the linguists’ behaviour in connection with their relative positions in the institutional hierarchy and the power relations connected with their different levels of language competence. CHAPTER 5 92 INTERPRETING THE TOKYO WAR CRIMES TRIAL There are two main reasons for focusing on the testimony of Hideki Tojo. First, it provides one of the largest sets of samples of interpretations in both directions between Japanese and English, and of monitors’ interjections, for any single witness. During the question-and-answer sessions, which were among the longest of all thetestimoniesgivenbyanyof thedefendants,eachof thethreemain monitors worked for more than one session. Thus, data is available for comparing the behaviour of different monitors.Tojo’s testimony also represents one of the most accessible segments of the films of the proceedings that are stored in the U.S. National Archives. Since their soundtracks are available, the problems arising from relying solely on the transcripts (see Gile 1999) can be mitigated to some degree. Further, focusing on Tojo’s testimony permits reference to the work of Tomie Watanabe (1998), which was the first academic inquiry into interpreting at the Tokyo Trial and includes an analysis of the interpreting during Tojo’s testimony. Although Watanabe’s more language-oriented focus differs from the approach taken in this chapter, some of the data she collected is incorporated in the examination of the linguists’ behaviour. The second reason for focusing on Tojo’s testimony is to minimize the variables in the factors that may have affected the behaviour of the linguists. Tojo was one of the last witnesses at the trial and his testimony was given in the twentieth month of the proceedings. Interpreters who had shown conspicuous cognitive limitations, such as late response or memory problems, would have been dismissed by that time. It is also probable that, as Watanabe has suggested (1998, 57), the most competent, knowledgeable and experienced interpreters were assigned to work on his testimony, given that he was considered the most influential figure in Japan’s wartime activities and his testimony attracted close attention both in Japan and around the world (see, for example,“Tribunal Packed For Tojo Phase,” Nippon Times, December 27, 1947). 5. TOJO’S TESTIMONY 93 Monitors and Interpreters during Tojo’s Testimony Tojo first took the witness stand on December 27, 1947, when his defense counsel, George Blewett, started reading out his affidavit and the monitor began a simultaneous reading of the prepared translation.Direct examination by Blewett started on the afternoon of December 30, and then the consecutive interpreting by the Japanese interpreters began.Examinations by other defense lawyers followed, then the cross-examination by Chief Prosecutor Joseph Keenan, which continued from the morning of December 31 to the afternoon of January 6, 1948. After further cross-examination by Sir William Webb on behalf of the judges, Tojo’s testimony ended on the morning of January 7, 1948, with Blewett’s redirect examination. The focus here is on the nine sessions, spread over the mornings and afternoons of six days, during which questions and answers were interpreted consecutively. Captain Edward Kraft was thelanguagearbiterthroughout,whiletheinterpretersandmonitors alternated (see Table 5.1). It should be noted that the transcripts do not indicate which of the interpreters was interpreting at any particular point in the proceedings. EXHIBIT 5.1 HIDEKI TOJO AT THE WITNESS STAND 94 INTERPRETING THE TOKYO WAR CRIMES TRIAL TABLE 5.1 MONITORS AND INTERPRETERS DURING PART OF THE TESTIMONY OF HIDEKI TOJO BETWEEN DECEMBER 30, 1947, AND JANUARY 7, 1948 MONITOR INTERPRETERS December 30, afternoon Sho Onodera Hideki Masaki, Takashi Oka, Toshiro Henry Shimanouchi December 31, morning Sho Onodera Masahito Iwamoto, Makoto Taji, Toshiro Henry Shimanouchi...


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