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1 Introduction This book, a study of Sigmund Freud's correspondence as it relates to his Jewish identity, presents evidence for and argues in support of two claims. First, Freud's Jewish identity, far from being a single homogenous reality, in fact develops in three stages-early (to 1907), middle (1907-23), and late (1923-39).1 These periods are reflexes ofone another, and they affect the presentation and content of Freud's psychoanalytic work. The late period in particular recapitulates the contents and patterns of the early period, after Freud passes through the maturational crucible of the "recessive" middle period. Secondly, Freud's Jewish identity is built upon a dual allegiance, namely, to Judentum (Jewish ethnicity and a Freudian version of Judaism ) and Humanitiit, German Enlightenment humanism and its liberal values. Freud affirms both his particularity as a Jew and his rightful participation in a vision of universal humanity. In this dual allegiance he is, I suggest, a model for modern Jewish identity, whose authenticity depends upon a commitment to such dual allegiance. Furthermore, such duality characterizes all responsible human identity in the modern period (that is, ours), in which all must affirm particular cultural and familial roots while simultaneously acknowledging the claim of the larger, global culture that has emerged as a consequence of mass communications, political evolution, and the catastrophic events of our century. Thus, this work is related not only to Jewish Studies, but also to the humanities. The book will examine Sigmund Freud's correspondence between the years 1872 and 1939 (the year of his death), and on this basis describe the development of his Jewish identity, using his own words to elicit the images that expressed and shaped his development. Because Freud related to his Jewishness differently in different periods of his life, his 2 DUAL ALLEGIANCE Jewish identity must be seen in chronological context in order to understand clearly both what he meant by what he said about it and how it was related to his work in founding, developing, and promoting psychoanalysis . Letters that provide such insight will be selected and interpreted in detail in the context of three major periods-early, middle, and late-that correspond to those into which Samuel Jaffe (University of Chicago) divides the development of Freud's psychoanalytic corpus.2 Freud's personal and professional lives nurture and define one another in his life, and although my focus will be on Freud's correspondence, his psychoanalytic writings will be introduced at appropriate points to complement and complete the picture of his Jewish self-understanding drawn from the correspondence at a particular point in time. Chapter 1 will introduce the topic and state the book's argument. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 will interpret Freud's correspondence in biographical and cultural context, each chapter focusing on one period in Freud's development-early (1872-1906), middle (1907-22), or hte (1923-39). Chapter 2 will also include a discussion of Freud's Jewish and humanist educations to give a sense of the cultural resources in his youth from which he drew. A closing chapter will turn to a discussion of Freud's Jewish identity as a model for the dual allegiance of modem identity, both Jewish and human, and its implications for humanistic multicultural education. Freud's last book, Moses and Monotheism, will receive special attention , on the assumption that it is Freud's mature statement of what his Jewish identity meant to him. It is then that Freud really comes to terms with the depths of his Jewish allegiance in spite of all rational considerations . Confronted with this inalienable and unavoidable depth, his own approaching death, and the political and social challenge to the value of Jewish life (i.e., the Nazis), he is driven to forge the bridge that is Moses andMonotheism. As Maryse Choisy writes, Moses andMonotheism is "Freud's deathbed confession. In it are engraved the secret hieroglyphics of the total Freud.".1 A developmental picture of the evolution of Freud's Jewish identity, based on his correspondence, can provide a key to help decipher these "hieroglyphics." That understanding, in turn, may help us as moderns to shape our own lives in a more effective way, as we search for alternatives to the "melting pot." Thus this book is a historical study of a particular Jewish identity that seeks to be of use also to contemporary thinking about modern identity and cultural in general. How can particular identity and culture best be preserved and...