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Notes 223 Abbreviations CD Kansas City, MO, City Directory, Missouri Valley Room, KCPL DJC Daily Journal of Commerce, 1865–80, microfilm, KCPL KCJ Kansas City Journal, 1918–29, microfilm, KCPL KCM Kansas City Mail, 1877–80, microfilm, KCPL KCPL Kansas City Public Library, Kansas City, MO KCS Kansas City Star, 1880–present, Early American Newspapers database KCT Kansas City Times, 1880–present, Early American Newspapers database UMKC University of Missouri–Kansas City WHMC Western Historical Manuscripts Collection, Kansas City, MO Introduction 1. DJC, January 7, 1871, 2. The term western is used to describe the location of Kansas City throughout this study. While Kansas City is today viewed as midwestern, that was not the case during this period, as evidenced by the name of one of the city’s newspapers , the Western Journal of Commerce. The term western also distinguishes Kansas City from large midwestern cities such as Chicago and St. Louis. 2. KCT, July 14, 1921, 2. 3. Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States, 3, 50–52, 525. According to Skocpol, women’s activism was particularly effective in the United States because no established church existed to limit activism, American women had better access to higher education, and American women reacted sharply to their exclusion from political participation. 4. Nancy F. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism, 30. 5. Mary E. Odem, Delinquent Daughters: Protecting and Policing Adolescent Female Sexuality in the United States, 1885–1920, 95–100. 6. William L. O’Neill, Feminism in America: A History, xiii. Kristi Andersen notes that women were, however, able to win small numbers of seats in state legislatures (146 seats by 1931) and became less rare in local government positions. At the same time, women in office were expected to behave in their gender-­ defined roles and advocate for gendered causes. Kristi Andersen, After Suffrage: Women in Partisan and Electoral Politics before the New Deal, 17. Wendy B. Sharer examines the literate practices of two major women’s groups—­ the League of Women Voters and the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom—­ as they strove to effect reform in spite of women’s lack of power within structures of power in the decade following suffrage. Wendy B. Sharer, Vote and Voice: Women’s Organizations and Political Literacy, 1915–1930, 3–4. 7. Nancy A. Hewitt describes this tripartite structure of middle-­and upper-­ class white Protestant female activism in Rochester, New York. Nancy A. Hewitt, Women’s Activism and Social Change: Rochester, NY, 1822–1872, 40. 8. The original name of the municipality was the Town of Kansas when it was incorporated by Jackson County on February 4, 1850. The 1853 chartering by the state legislature amended the name to the City of Kansas. The name was changed again, to Kansas City, in 1889. For the purposes of this discussion, Kansas City will be used consistently . See Roy Ellis, “A Civic History of Kansas City, Missouri,” 9. 9. US Census, 1870. Regarding the impact of the railroad bridge on Kansas City, see Louis W. Potts and George F. W. Hauck, “Frontier Bridge Building: The Hannibal Bridge at Kansas City, 1867–1869,” 161. For information on the inflation of population data in the 1870 US Census, see Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J. Hulston, “Through the Eyes of a Medical Student: A Window on Frontier Life in Kansas City,” 433. 10. Paul E. Johnson, A Shopkeeper’s Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815 to 1837; Paul S. Boyer, Urban Masses and Social Order in America, 1820– 1920; Nathan O. Hatch, The Democratization of American Christianity. See also Peggy Pascoe, Relations of Rescue: Female Moral Authority in the American West, 1874–1939; Elizabeth Hayes Turner, Women, Culture, and Community: Religion and Reform in Galveston , 1880–1920. 11. Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought, 1860–1915, 10–105; Ruth Bordin, Women and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873–1900, 107; Robert Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920. See also Alfred Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business; T. J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880– 1920; and Alan Trachtenberg, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. 12. Lawrence H. Larsen and Nancy J. Hulston, Pendergast! Chapter One. The Exploding Western Metropolis 1. A. Theodore Brown, “Business ‘Neutralism’ on the Missouri-­ Kansas Border: Kansas City, 1854–1857,” 229–33. Brown argued...

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