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169 . N O T E S Introduction 1. Cited in Anthony Cuthbertson, “Ray Kurzweil: Human Brains Could be Connected to the Cloud by 2030,” International Business Times (2015), 2. Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition, 2nd ed. (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1996). 3. Friedrich Willhelm Joseph von Schelling, System of Transcendental Idealism (1800), trans. Peter Heath (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1978). 4. This is a veiled reference to Transhumanism, the cultural and intellectual movement dedicated to advancing the cause of human enhancement through biological and technological interventions. In continuity with the tradition of eighteenth century enlightenment humanism, transhumanists affirm and celebrate the self-­ fashioning autonomy of the human species. Their credo is most vividly expressed in the second point of the most recent version of the “transhumanist declaration”: “We believe that humanity’s potential is still mostly unrealized. There are possible scenarios that lead to wonderful and exceedingly worthwhile enhanced human conditions.” Transhumanists consider it an ethical duty to invest research efforts into the enhancement opportunities afforded by new biotechnologies with a view to ultimately advancing ourselves to a posthuman stage in which biological constraints (chief among them, death) have been transcended and finitude definitively surpassed. In unabashedly teleological terms, this is conceptualized as the completion of a process, “like the full moon that follows a waxing crescent, or like the flower that follows a seed.” Nick Bostrom, “Letter from Utopia,” Studies in Ethics, Law and Technology 2, no. 1 (2008): 1–­ 7. See also, Ramez Naam, More Than Human : Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement (New York: Broadway Books, 2005); Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Penguin, 2006); Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom, eds. Human Enhancement, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); Max More and Natasha Vita-­ More, eds. The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future (Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, 2013). 170 . NO T ES T O I N T R ODUC T I ON 5. See the 2013 report published by the Nuffield Council on Bioethics, “Novel Neurotechnologies : Intervening in the Brain,” available online at project/neurotechnology/. 6. Douglas Kahn, Earth Sound Earth Signal: Energies and Earth Magnitude in the Arts (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2013). A CBS news report from inside Dewan’s laboratory is available on YouTube. 7. B. Graimann, B. Allison, and G. Pfurtscheller, “Brain Computer Interfaces: A Gentle Introduction,” in Brain Computer Interfaces: Revolutionizing Human-­ Computer Inter­ action, ed. B. Graimann and B. Z. Allison (New York: Springer, 2010). 8. Jacques J. Vidal, “Toward Direct Brain-­ Computer Communication,” Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering 2 (1973). 9. Luca Citi et al., “P300-­Based BCI Mouse with Genetically-­optimized Analogue Control,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 16, no. 1 (2008). 10. Femke Nijboer et al., “A P300-­ based Brain-­ Computer Interface for People with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,” Clinical Neurophysiology 119 no. 8 (2008): 1909–­ 16. 11. From the press release at 12. Meel Velliste et al., “Cortical Control of a Prosthetic Arm for Self-­ Feeding,” Nature 453, no. 7198 (2008). 13. 14. Diana Lutz, “Epidural Electrocorticography May Finally Allow Enduring Control of a Prosthetic or Paralyzed Arm by Thought Alone,” 15. Thomas Naselaris et al., “Bayesian Reconstruction of Natural Images from Human Brain Activity,” Neuron 63 no. 6 (2009): 902–­ 15; Shinji Nishimoto et al., “Reconstructing Visual Experiences from Brain Activity Evoked by Natural Movies,” Current Biology 21, no. 19 (2011): 1641–­46. Fascinating video footage of Gallant’s experiments is available on YouTube. 16. Patrick Tucker, “Could a Brain Scan Protect U.S. Troops from Insider Attacks?” , http:// 17. Slavoj Žižek, The Parallax View (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2006), 193. 18. Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia, trans. E. F. N. Jephcott (London: Verso, 2005), 81. 19. Ibid., 80. 20. Thomas Metzinger, Being No One: The Self-­ Model Theory of Subjectivity (Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 2003), 314. 21. Metzinger goes on to say that it is a “phenomenological fallacy” to imagine that this is a necessary feature of all conscious experience and cites a series of neurophenomenological case studies to make the point. 22. Immanuel Kant, Critique of Practical Reason, trans. Werner S. Pluhar (Indianapolis, Ind.: Hackett, 2002), 147. All references to Kant’s texts are given by the Akademie edition pagination , except references to...


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