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Notes Preface 1. Friedrich Nietz­ sche, Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality, trans. R. J. Hollingdale (New York: Cambridge UP, 1997), 5; William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, ed. Barbara Mowat, Paul Werstine, Michael Poston, and Rebecca Niles (Washington, DC: Folger Shakespeare Library, n.d.), 2.2.210, www​ .­folgerdigitaltexts​.­org. On the role of “the words on the page” in the New Criticism, see Mark Jacovich, The Cultural Politics of the New Criticism (New York: Cambridge UP, 1993), 6; on the distinction between res and verba, see Terence Cave, The Cornucopian Text: Prob­ lems of Writing in the French Re­ nais­ sance (New York: Oxford UP, 1979), xi. 2. Walter Jackson Bate, “The Crisis in En­ glish Studies,” Harvard Magazine, September–­ October 1982, 46–53, described philology as “the study of words historically ” (49). Yet Jan Ziolkowski, “‘What Is Philology’: Introduction,” in On Philology, ed. Ziolkowski (University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1990), 1–12, rightly points out that “Wortphilologie is one of philology’s divisions” and that “philology is not just a­ grand etymological or lexicographic enterprise” (6–7). 3. Paul de Man, “The Return to Philology,” in The Re­ sis­ tance to Theory (Minneapolis : U of Minnesota P, 1986), 3–26, 23; Gerald Graff, Professing Lit­er­a­ture: An Institutional History (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987), 28–41, 67–69; Edward Said, Humanism and Demo­cratic Criticism (New York: Columbia UP, 2004), 61; Jerome McGann, A New Republic of Letters: Memory and Scholarship in the Age of Digital Reproduction (Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2014), proposing that Wortphilologie (2) should be accompanied by Sachphilologie, “a philology of material culture” (3). 4. William Empson, The Structure of Complex Words (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1967), 39. 5. Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The Poet,” in The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol. 3 (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1904), 22; Honoré de Balzac, Louis Lambert, in The Works of Honoré de Balzac, ed. George Saintsbury, vol. 2 (Boston: Dana Estes, 1901), 147. 6. James Turner, Philology: The Forgotten Origins of the Modern Humanities (Prince­ ton, NJ: Prince­ ton UP, 2014), 3–4. On philology as the expansive name for, in the words of August Boeckh, “die Erkenntnis des Erkannten” (the knowledge of ­ things known), see Martin Mueller, “The EEBO-­ TCP Phase I Public Release,” Spenser Review 44.2.36 (Fall 2014), http://­www​.­english​.­cam​.­ac​.­uk​/­spenseronline​/­review​/­volume​-­44​/­442​/­digital​ -­projects​/­the​-­eebo​-­tcp​-­phase​-­i​-­public​-­release​/­ . Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, The Powers of Philology (Urbana: U of Illinois P, 2003), offers a contrarian account of philology in which the word refers solely to the discipline of historical text curatorship. 228 Notes to Pages ix–x 7. Leo Spitzer, Essays in Historical Semantics (New York: S. F. Vanni, 1948); Martin Jay, Cultural Semantics: Keywords of Our Time (Amherst: U of Mas­ sa­ chu­ setts P, 1998); Roland Greene, Five Words: Critical Semantics in the Age of Shakespeare and Cervantes (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2013). 8. See Marjorie Garber, Loaded Words (New York: Fordham UP, 2012); Brian Boyd, ed., Words That Count: Essays in Honor of MacDonald P. Jackson (Newark: U of Delaware P, 2004); and Judith H. Anderson, Words That ­ Matter: Linguistic Perception in Re­ nais­ sance En­glish (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1996). 9. Empson, Structure; Raymond Williams, Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, rev. ed. (New York: Oxford UP, 1983). The production of keywords volumes has become a major industry across domains of cultural studies. See, e.g., recent volumes in the Wiley-­ Blackwell series Keywords in Lit­ er­ a­ ture and Culture: Allen J. Frantzen, Anglo-­Saxon Keywords (Chichester, UK: Wiley-­ Blackwell, 2012); Melba Cuddy-­ Kean, Adam Hammond, and Alexandra Peat, eds., Modernism: Keywords (Chichester, UK: Wiley-­ Blackwell, 2014); and Frederick Burwick, Romanticism: Keywords (Chichester, UK: Wiley-­ Blackwell, 2015), with further volumes slated on ­ Middle En­ glish and British lit­ er­ a­ ture from 1660 to 1789. 10. Judith Butler, Bodies That ­ Matter: On the Discursive Limits of Sex (New York: Routledge, 1993), 145. 11. See Jean Laplanche and Jean-­ Bertand Pontalis, Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2007); David Crystal and Ben Crystal, Shakespeare’s Words: A Glossary and Language Companion (New York: Penguin, 2002); and Annabel M. Patterson, Milton’s Words (New York: Oxford UP, 2009). 12. See Greene, Five Words. 13. Instances abound, but see, for prominent examples, Raymond Williams, Culture and Society, 1780–1950, 2nd ed. (New York: Columbia UP...


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