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NOTES Introduction 1. Ferdinand Schuyler Mathews, Field Book of Wild Birds and Their Music (New York: Putnam, [1904] 1921), 116. 2. See Ulric Daubeny, “Gramophone ‘Why Nots?’,” Musical Times 61, no. 929 (July 1920): 486; Lawrence Gilman, “Music of the Month: A Tone Poet from Italy,” North American Review 215, no. 795 (Feb. 1922): 267. 3. Agnes Huplitz, “Poliomyelitis and Cranberries,” American Journal of Nursing 17, no. 6 (Mar. 1917): 504. 4. Henry Oldys, “Music of Man and Bird,” Harper’s Monthly 114 (Apr. 1907): 771. 5. Albert R. Brand, “A Method for the Intensive Study of Bird Song,” Auk 52, no. 1 (Jan. 1935): 40–52. 6. Aretas Saunders, “The Song of the Song Sparrow,” Wilson Bulletin 63, no. 2 (June 1951): 101. 7. The associations of “Reuben” with minstrelsy were still remembered in the twentieth century, where it was featured, among other things, as an interlude in performances of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Edward Morrow, “Poor Old Uncle Tom,” Prairie Schooner 4, no. 3 (Summer 1930): 178; 174–80. 8. “Song Sparrow,” Wikipedia, accessed July 25, 2016, /Song_sparrow#Song. 9. Excellent examples of such canon-making descriptions of sound in animal behaviorism include D. Graham Burnett, The Sounding of the Whale: Science and Cetaceans in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012); Joeri Bruyninckx, “Sound Sterile: Making Scientific Field Recordings in Ornithology,” in The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies, ed. Karin Bijsterveld and Trevor Pinch (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 127–50; Gregory Radick, The Simian Tongue (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007). 10. Jonathan Sterne, The Audible Past: Cultural Origins of Sound Reproduction (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Mara Mills, “Deaf Jam: From Inscription to Reproduc- 184 Notes to Chapter One tion to Information,” Social Text 28, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 35–58; Julia Kursell, “A Gray Box: The Phonograph in Laboratory Experiments and Fieldwork, 1900–1920,” in Bijsterveld and Pinch, Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies, 176-197. 11. The story of Edison’s ear phonautograph is told in Sterne, The Audible Past, 31. 12. See, for example, Alexandra Hui, The Psychophysical Ear: Musical Experiments, Experimental Sounds, 1840–1910 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2013); Benjamin Steege, Helmholtz and the Modern Listener (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012). 13. Una Chaudhuri and Holly Hughes, “Introduction,” in Animal Acts: Performing Species Today (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014), 2. 14. See, for example, Colin Dayan, With Dogs at the Edge of Life (New York: Columbia University Press, 2016); Zakiyyah Iman Jackson, “Outer Worlds: The Persistence of Race in Movement ‘Beyond the Human,’” GLQ 21, no. 2–3 (June 2015): 215–18; Clare Jean Kim, Dangerous Crossings: Race, Species, and Nature in a Multicultural Age (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015); Kalpana Rahita Seshadri, HumAnimal: Race, Law, Language (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012); Alexander Weheliye, Habeus Viscus: Racializing Assemblages, Biopolitics, and Black Feminist Theories of the Human (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014). 15. Bruno Latour, We Have Never Been Modern, trans. Catherine Porter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993); Donna Haraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science (New York: Routledge, 1989); Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). 16. George Santayana, The Life of Reason or The Phases of Human Progress: Reason in Common Sense (New York: Scribner, [1905] 1920), 284. 17. Ibid., 284–85. 18. See note 14. ONE Why Do Birds Sing? And Other Tales 1. Henry W. Oldys, “A Remarkable Hermit Thrush Song,” Auk 30 (Oct. 1913): 541. Oldys (born Henry Worthington Olds) didn’t argue that birdsong was the direct predecessor of human music in the evolutionary timeline, but rather that they mapped parallel aesthetic developments. 2. Robert Lach, Studien zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der ornamentalen Melopöie (Lepizig : C. F. Kahnt Nachfolger, 1913), 545: “dieser Frage, die für die musikalische Entwickelungsgeschichte darum von größter Bedeutung ist, weil sie den Schlüssel zum Problem der Entstehung von Sprache und Musik bildet.” 3. Peter Bowler, Evolution: The History of an Idea (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 285. Notes to Chapter One 185 4. See Julian Huxley, Evolution: The Modern Synthesis, 2nd ed. (London: Allen and Unwin, 1963), 22–24. See also The Evolutionary Synthesis: Perspectives on the Unification of Biology, ed. Ernst Mayr and William B. Provine (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980); Bowler, Evolution; or Vassilliki Betty Smocovitis’s more recent “‘It Ain’t Over...