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POSTMODERN HUMANIT Y, SUBJECTIVIT Y, AND PAR ADISE — In the final three chapters of this book, I trace the development of a disciplinary division that separated the study of human song from the study of animal voices. In that division, opposing standards of evidence emerged that located human and animal voices in separate spheres after 1945. In the study of animal voices, evidence was shaped by notions of laboratory objectivity, while in studies of human song, evidence was evaluated in relation to subjective cultural traditions. This growing divide between animal nature and human culture, however, was defined in many ways by concerns about the concept of race, which continued to trouble beliefs about genetic and cultural difference in the aftermath of World War II. Taken together, the last three chapters of my book tell a counter-history of humanism that revisits the problem of knowledge in a postwar, postmodern, posthuman world. ...