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Notes Introduction 1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, Notes from Underground, trans. Mirra Ginsburg (New York: Bantam, 1974), 21–22. 2. Fedor Mikhailovich Dostoevskii, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii (hereafter PSS), 30 vols. (Leningrad: Nauka, 1972–1990), 28:1:176. 3. Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2007), 594–617 (here, 595). 4. Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (New York: Knopf, 2007), 1203. 5. О Сый, котораго перомъ, / Ни бреннымъ зрѣніемъ, ни слухомъ, / Ниже витійства языкомъ / Не можно описать. Wolfgang Kasack calls this “one of the most magnificent Christ poems in all of Russian literature” in his Christus in der russischen Literatur : Ein Gang durch die Literaturgeschichte von ihren Anfängen biz zum Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts (Munich: Otto Sagner, 1999), 25. 6. “The Mystical Theology,” translated by Colm Luibheid in Pseudo-Dionysius: The Complete Works (New York: Paulist Press, 1987), 141. 7. Vladimir Lossky, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1998), 25. 8. Ibid., 27. 9. According to Kasack, this episode from the Gospels is often cited in Russian literature . See his Christus in der russischen Literatur, 8–9. 10. For the purposes of my study, agape is understood in its broadest sense as unconditional, selfless, active love. It is often considered synonymous with divine love, the love of God for humankind. Eros in this study is romantic, passionate, sexual love. For an encyclopedic study of agape in Russian religious thought, see Johannes Miroslav Oravecz , God As Love:The Concept and Spiritual Aspects of Agape in Modern Russian Religious Thought (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2014). 11. Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (New York: Viking, 2001), 42. 12. See, for example, Luke 14:25–26: “If anyone comes to me and does not hate father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters—yes, even their own life—such a person cannot be my disciple.” Also, Matthew 10:37: “Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy of me, and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.” 13. Dostoevskii, PSS 20:173. English translation by Liza Knapp from Dostoevsky’s The Idiot: A Critical Companion, ed. Liza Knapp (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1998), 220. 14. Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Brothers Karamazov, trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1990), part 2, book 6, chapter 3, 316. N O T E S T O C H A P T E R 1 222 15. Most recently, see Jefferson J.A. Gatrall’s The Real and the Sacred: Picturing Jesus in Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014). Gatrall’s work is an excellent analysis of visual rendtions of Christ described in nineteenth-century American and European literature, including the works of Dostoevsky and Tolstoy. 16. One of the best treatments of the idea of the Christ figure and the various ways that the life and person of Jesus have been deployed in world literature is Theodore Ziolkowski, Fictional Transfigurations of Jesus (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972). 17. This has already been done in Kasack’s Christus in der russischen Literatur. 18. See part 1, chapter 6 of his Notes from Underground. 19. The most significant book on this topic to date is Wolfgang Kasack’s chronological reference work, Christus in der russischen Literatur. A two-volume anthology of Russian poetry devoted to Christ and his teachings appeared in 2013: Lidiia Molchanova, Obraz Khrista v russkoi literature (St. Petersburg: Novoe i staroe, 2013). The work is largely devotional,containing brief contextual notes but no analysis of Russian poetic engagement with the image of Christ. Chapter 1 1. Pieter N. Holtrop and C. H. Slechte, “Foreign Churches along the Nevski Prospekt :An Introduction,”in Foreign Churches in St. Petersburg and Their Archives: 1703–1917, ed. Pieter N. Holtrop and C. H. Slechte (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 2. 2. Alexander Herzen, My Past and Thoughts, trans. Constance Garnett, revised by Humphrey Higgens, 4 vols. (New York: Knopf, 1968), 1:42. Cited in Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky : The Seeds of Revolt, 1821–1849 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), 42. 3. Frank, Seeds of Revolt, 42. 4. V. G. Belinsky, “Letter to N. V. Gogol,” in Belinsky, Chernyshevsky, and Dobrolyubov : Essential Writings by the Founders of Russian Literary and Social Criticism,ed.Ralph E. Matlaw (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977), 86–87. Translation modified by me. 5. Ernest J. Simmons, Chekhov: A Biography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962), 392. 6. Anton Chekhov,“Peasants...


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