restricted access Index
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

243 NOTE: Page numbers in italic type denote photographs, figures, or tables; those in bold denote maps. abrasion (taphonomic): and broken bone controversy, 120; evaluation, 119–20, 218; simulation experiment, 54, 99– 100, 196, 216; and trampling mechanics, 103–4, 117; vs. use-wear, 118, 119, 125–28, 133, 220 aerial survey, 4, 5 aggradation cycles. See degradation/aggradation cycles algae. See diatom fossil analysis Altithermal period, 57–58 archaeological association, 120. See also butchery; cultural environment, overviews and conclusions; use-wear evaluations archaeological investigations, overview, 5, 7–14, 19 assemblage. See bone artifacts; Lange/Ferguson site; lithic artifacts Augustana University, 12 Badlands, South Dakota: definition and etymology, 4; geomorphology of area, 14, 29; regional geochronology profiles, 50–51, 55–57; vegetation profiles, 19, 22, 24, 26. See also Lange Creek/Draw Valley; White River Badlands Bear Creek, 50, 55 bedrock analysis, 13, 32, 39, 113 Behrensmeyer scale, 105, 112, 113, 114, 217 bending fractures, 93–94, 96 bentonite, removal of, 11 bicarbonate, 31, 44, 45 bifacial flaking, diagnostic, 118, 122, 129, 131–32, 220 biocoenosis, 111 biomechanics, bone, 93, 117. See also bone fracture dynamics Black Hills data, 57 bone artifacts: absent skeletal remains, 118, 145, 146; characteristics, summary of, 150–51; discovery overviews, 3, 4–5; excavation of, 8–13; location, 5, 7, 44. See also bone tools; mammoth specimen (adult); mammoth specimen (juvenile); use-wear evaluations, bone artifacts bone bed. See bone artifacts bone fracture dynamics: and expediency tool diagnostics, 123–24, 132–33; loading (force) and fracture dynamics, 94, 121, 129, 183, 218, 221; mechanics of, 93–98. See also bone structure; broken bone controversy bone marrow extraction, 108–9 bone structure: histogenesis, 92–93; intracellular, 91–92; macroscopic, 89–90; microscopic, 90–91; osteological construction, strength of, 98, 111, 115, 138; overview, 89. See also bone fracture dynamics bone tools: cleavers, 153–55, 156; cores (dorsal/ventral flakes), 164–68, 170–71; evaluation procedures and methods, 117–18, 153; flake cutting tool, 155, 157; flakes (diaphyseal), 172–80; flakes (scapular), 157–58, 180–81; flesh-working tools, 158–59, 162, 163; fragments (cranial), 176–77, 193–95; fragments (deer bones), 196–99; fragments (diaphyseal), 176–77, 182–85; fragments (rib), 168–69, 176–77, 192, 193, 194; fragments (scapular), 176–77, 186–91; punch, 158, 159. See also expediency tool diagnostics brittle fracture, 95 broken bone controversy, 107–10, 111, 114–15, 117–18, 120– 21, 153. See also disarticulation, natural vs. cultural bulk sediment organic matter (BSOM) analyses, 31 bulk sediment organic residue (BSOR) analyses, 31 burial (taphonomic), interpretation of, 114–15, 216–17 burning (taphonomic), 99, 218 burrowing animals, perturbation by, 113 butchery: cultural setting evaluation, 219–22; disarticulation process, natural vs. cultural, 100–102, 137–42; evidence of, 10–11, 42, 221–22; modern comparative studies, 101– 2, 140–41; sequence/strategy observations, 108, 143–48. See also expediency tool diagnostics Buttes, designation of, 29. See also Localities, designation of buttes, erosional, 31, 32–33 caching behavior, 102 calcareous microfossils. See mollusk fossil analysis; ostracode fossil analysis calcification process in bone, 92–93, 99, 217–18 Callahan, Errett, 151 canaliculi, 90, 95 cancellous bone, 89–90, 91, 92 carnivores. See predators/scavengers index 244 Index cartilage and bone structure, 90, 92 cement lines in bones, 93, 94, 96 Chadron Formation, 32 chalcedony source stone, 149, 202, 219 chert artifacts, 149, 152 Cheyenne River valley/basin, 30, 55 clams, 62 climate changes, 42, 53–55, 73–74, 85–86. See also hydrogeologic profile, evaluations Clovis occupation at Lange/Ferguson: cultural analysis conclusions, 57–59, 222; technology use cycles, 201–2, 208–9; timeframe of artifacts, 14, 43, 52–54. See also expediency tool diagnostics; projectile points collagen, 91, 92, 94, 104 compact bone (cortical), 89–90, 90–91, 92 compressive force, 93 compressive strength of bone, 94 Conata Basin 1 site, 20, 24 cone scars, 144, 155, 182, 183, 186, 192 CONISS program, 20 cortical bone (compact), 89–90, 90–91, 92 Cottonwood Lake site, 18, 20, 23, 24–25, 27 cultural environment, overviews and conclusions, 10–11, 107–10, 114–15, 219–22. See also bone tools; broken bone controversy; expediency tool diagnostics Cuny Table, 30, 50, 51, 55, 56 curved fractures, 123, 132 cut marks: abrasion simulation, 99; bone vs. stone tools, 142, 217; cultural vs. natural, 108–9, 138; deer bone artifacts, 135, 197, 199; diagnostic analyses, 134–35, 139 deer bone artifacts, 10, 13, 135, 196–99 defect classification and fracture dynamics, 95–96 degradation/aggradation cycles, 14, 53...


pdf