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149 The Lange/Ferguson site artifact assemblage constitutes both lithic and bone specimens. More than 100 culturally modified artifacts were identified at the site; four are lithic tools and the remainder are bone. A sample of 61 of these specimens, including the four lithic tools (table 22) and 57 bone items (table 23), are presented here. One utilized tertiary flake was recovered from the mammoth bonebed at Locality A. The basal portion of a Clovis projectile point and two complete Clovis projectile points were recovered from Locality B, approximately 17 m south of the bonebed at the top of Stratum B, the same stratigraphic deposit that contained the mammoth remains (see C. V. Haynes, chapter 3, this volume). The bone artifacts described below derive from the juvenile and adult mammoths, as well as horse and mule deer. Bone artifacts presented in the sample consist of six tools or potential tools (two cleavers, a flake cutting tool, a possible punching tool, and two possible fleshing tools) and 51 additional modified specimens. Lithic Artifacts Tertiary Flake Specimen L-80–1, a lithic flake, was located in direct association with mammoth bone elements in the central bonebed concentration. It is a tertiary flake produced on translucent, reddish-brown (10YR 4/3) Scenic chalce­ dony (fig. 66). The obverse face exhibits negative scars from overlapping flake removal; the reverse face displays compression rings. The distal end indicates that the flake terminated in a hinge fracture. The specimen was recovered in situ adjacent to the joint capsule of the left distal femur of the adult mammoth in unit D-1E, Locality A (see figs. 9, 12, and 13). The specimen measures 25.5 mm in maximum The Lange/Ferguson Artifact Assemblage chapter eleven L. Adrien Hannus Figure 66. Specimen L-80-1. Obverse (left) and reverse (right) faces depicted. Table 22. Summary data for lithic artifacts from the Lange/Ferguson site Specimen no. Material type Tool type Portion Microwear evidence? L-80-1 Scenic chalcedony Tertiary flake Complete Yes—cutting use-wear striations L-81-1 Chert Projectile point Complete Yes—impact and cutting use-wear striations L-84-1 Chert Projectile point Complete Yes—impact and cutting use-wear striations L-84-2 Chert Projectile point Proximal base Yes—impact and cutting use-wear striations 150 Chapter Eleven length, 29.0 mm in maximum width, and 4.5 mm in maximum thickness; it weighs 2.24 g. The results of a microwear study of the flake, as reported by Kay (chapter 12, this volume), identified wear patterns consistent with use as a cutting implement. The flake was recovered 8 cm north of the distal epiphysis of the left mammoth femur. It is posited that during a butchering procedure intended to break through the ligaments and tendons associated with the femorotibial joint capsule, the flake was detached by an impact blow delivered by a bifacial cleaving implement and then lodged in the surrounding fibrous tissue. The orientation of the flake itself supports this hypothesis. The proximal end of the specimen, which received the blow of applied force detaching it, was in correct orientation to the ligament/ tendon area of the femur. The proximal end of the flake exhibits negative scars of hinge fracture and crushing from having been part of a previous working margin. Table 23. Summary data for select bone artifacts from the Lange/Ferguson site Specimen Artifact/ Skeletal Microscopic no. Species tool type element Modification type use-wear* 81-22 Mammoth Cleaver Scapula Overlapping bifacial flake scars; striking platforms Yes 81-32 Mammoth Cleaver Scapula Helical fracture; loading points; overlapping bifacial flake scars Yes 81-81 Mammoth Flake cutting tool Long bone Bulb of percussion; hackle marks Yes 81-161 Mammoth Punch Fibula Helical fractures; overlapping bifacial flake scars Yes 81-155 Mammoth Flesh-working tool Rib -- -81 -284 Horse Flesh-working tool Tibia Helical fracture; overlapping flake scars Yes 81-304 Mammoth Core Tibia Helical fracture; hinge fractures; striking platform; loading point; overlapping bifacial flake scars -81 -158 Mammoth Core Long bone Hinge fractures; bifacial flake scars; bulb of percussion; hackle marks -81 -112-A Mammoth Core Long bone Overlapping flake scars -81 -237 Mammoth Core Long bone Flake scars -81 -216 Mammoth Core Rib Hinge fracture; striking platforms; overlapping flake scars -81 -154 Mammoth Flake Tibia Striking platform; overlapping flake scars -81 -303 Mammoth Flake Tibia Bulb of percussion; hackle marks -81 -18 Mammoth Flake Long bone Helical fracture; hinge fractures; flake scar; bulb of percussion; hackle marks -81 -211 Mammoth...


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