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162 c h a p t e r 1 1 Toward Equity and Equality transforming universities into indigenous places of learning Kaiwipunikauikawēkiu Lipe (Native Hawaiian) Welina Mānoa ua kama‘āina He ‘āina i ka ihu la o nā moku A moku mai ka pawa, ‘o ke ao a‘ela Ala a‘e kāua, ua ao ‘eā A he ao mālama ko uhai aloha He kilohana no Kānewai i ke pili Ho‘i pili aloha me Ka-­ ua-­ wa‘ahila Ia ua ho‘opulu i ke kula o Puahia Pua ana ke kupa ala leia ke kama nei Kama ‘ia i kama‘āina ke aloha Aloha Mānoa i ka ua Tuahine Halihali ‘ia maila e ka ‘olu Kahaukani Kani a‘ela ia uka o Kaho‘iwai Ia ‘āina kaulana i ka ulu lehua Lehua-­ kea o ka uka la o Naniuapō Pōwehi i ka wai pe‘e palai o Waiakeakua A ka pohu la‘i la a‘o Akaaka I ka ua koko‘ula a‘o Kahala (Kahalaopuna) Ua kau, ua holo, ua pae aku Ua ho‘i ka u‘i o Mānoa, ua ahiahi1 (Basham & Lopes, 2002) Toward Equity and Equality  163 Aloha mai kāua e ka mea heluhelu!2 In 2015, the Association for the Study of Higher Education’s (ASHE) annual conference theme was “Inequality and Higher Education” with a subtheme of “Indigenous Peoples.” This pairing of themes stirred something inside of me that led to the presentation of the following chapter that focuses specifically on inequality and inequity in higher education in relation to Indigenous peoples. Ancestral Connections to Land I begin with the Hawaiian chant Welina Mānoa Ua Kama‘āina as presented above for two reasons. First, it is a chant, composed by Professors Keawe Lopes and Leilani Basham, which describes Mānoa valley, the land where I work at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa (UHM).3 Therefore, presenting this chant is a way for me to introduce where I come from, where I spend most of my days, where most of my research is focused, and where I believe there is much promise and abundance for my Hawaiian people.4 Mānoa was once one of the most fertile and productive places for food cultivation on the island of O‘ahu (Kame‘eleihiwa, 2016). For one, Mānoa has great sources of fresh water and rich soil. Second, recognizing these gifts of natural resources, Native Hawaiians carefully and expertly managed and tended to the land, the water, and the abundant natural resources of the area to grow food and feed the multitudes. The staple food cultivated in Mānoa was kalo, not only a food crop but also ancestor of the Hawaiian people in our cosmogonic genealogies (Kame‘eleihiwa, 1992; Lili‘uokalani, 1897). Today, Mānoa is no longer a primary location of kalo or food production. It is heavily populated with homes, small businesses, and the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. As such, although Mānoa does not primarily feed people with her kalo anymore, the land of Mānoa continues to provide the natural resources of land and water, which sustains our state’s research-­ intensive, largest public-­ serving university. The second reason I opened with the chant Welina Mānoa Ua Kama‘āina (Basham & Lopes, 2002) is because it calls out to all of us to recognize what Mānoa truly is: Ancestral Native Hawaiian land. This is a critical point because if we are going to address inequality and inequity in higher education , we have to begin with at least this one truth: Every university in the United States of America and Hawai‘i is situated on Indigenous land (Justice, 2004; Kame‘eleihiwa in Lipe, 2012). As such, each of our universities, and each of us who work at those universities, reaps resources from the Indigenous homelands upon which our institutions sit; land that was likely seized from those Indigenous peoples in less than legal ways (Dunbar-­ Ortiz, 2014). Meanwhile, nearly all of our institutions of “higher education”have somehow managed to forget, erase, ignore, dishonor, and disrespect this truth. Further, most of our universities engage in little to no reciprocation with the Indigenous 164 Kaiwipunikauikawēkiu Lipe lands that sustain us and with the Indigenous peoples who have maintained those lands, who are genealogically connected to those lands, whose health and well-­ being depend on access to those lands, and whose ancestors are buried in those lands...


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