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Symbols and Abbreviations An asterisk (*) indicates that although the medication, procedure, or technique is recommended and students should know about it, it has limited or no availability in most parts of sub-­ Saharan Africa. ABG = arterial blood gas ACEi = angiotensin-­ converting enzyme inhibitor AFB = acid-­ fast bacillus AIDS = acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AKI = acute kidney injury ALT = alanine aminotransferase ANA = antinuclear antigen ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome ART = antiretroviral therapy ASD = atrial septal defect AST = aspartate aminotransferase AVPU = alert, responds to voice, responds to pain, unconscious AZT = azidothymidine (aka zidovudine) BCG = bacillus Calmette-­ Guérin BID = twice a day BLS = basic life support BP = blood pressure BUN = blood urea nitrogen BW = body weight C3 = complement 3 C4 = complement 4 CBC = complete blood count CD4 = cluster of differentiation 4 (immune-­ cell-­ surface protein) xii Symbols and Abbreviations CHD = congenital heart disease CHF = congestive heart failure CMV = cytomegalovirus CNS = central nervous system CO = cardiac output CO2 = carbon dioxide CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure CRP = C-­ reactive protein CSF = cerebral spinal fluid CT = computed tomography CTZ = chemoreceptor trigger zone CVP = central venous pressure CXR = chest X-­ ray DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis DM = diabetes mellitus dsDNA = double-­ stranded DNA EBV = Epstein-­ Barr virus eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate EKG = electrocardiogram ENT = ear, nose, throat ESR = sedimentation rate ETAT = Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment FBC = full blood count (ie, CBC) FBP = full blood picture (ie, CBC) FiO2 = fraction of inspired oxygen FSGS = focal segmental glomerulosclerosis G6PD = glucose-­ 6-­ phosphate dehydrogenase GA = gestational age GBS = group B Streptococcus GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale GGT = gamma-­ glutamyl transferase GI = gastrointestinal GS = Gram stain H&E = hematoxylin and eosin (stain) Symbols and Abbreviations xiii H&P = (complete initial) history and physical (note) Hb = hemoglobin HEENT = head, eyes, ears, nose, throat HIV = human immunodeficiency virus HPF = high-­ power field HPI = history of present illness HSP = Henoch-­ Schönlein purpura HSV = herpes simplex virus HTN = hypertension HUS = hemolytic uremic syndrome IBD = inflammatory bowel disease ICP = intracranial pressure ICU = intensive care unit IgA = immunoglobulin A IM = intramuscular IMCI = Integrated Management of Childhood Illness INR = international normalized ratio IO = intraosseus IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction IV = intravenous IVC = inferior vena cava IVH = intraventricular hemorrhage JACCOL = jaundice, anemia, clubbing, cyanosis, oedema, and lymphadenopathy JVD = jugular venous distention JVP = jugular venous pressure LA = left atrium LABA = long-­ acting beta agonist LBW = low birth weight LDH = lactate dehydrogenase LGA = large for gestational age LLSB = left lower sternal border LP = lumbar puncture LPF = low-­ power field LUSB = left upper sternal border xiv Symbols and Abbreviations LV = left ventricle LVH = left ventricular hypertrophy MBS = malarial blood smear MCV = mean corpuscular volume MDI = metered-­ dose inhaler m.o. = months old MRDT = malarial rapid diagnostic test MUAC = mid-­ upper arm circumference NEC = necrotizing enterocolitis NG = nasogastric (tube) NICU = neonatal intensive care unit NNRTI = non-­ nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NRTI = nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor NS = normal saline NSAID = nonsteroidal anti-­ inflammatory drug OG = orogastric (tube) ORS = oral rehydration solution PaO2 = partial pressure of oxygen PCN = penicillin PCR = polymerase chain reaction PDA = patent ductus arteriosus PEEP = positive end-­ expiratory pressure PFO = patent foramen ovale PI = protease inhibitor PITC = provider-­ initiated (HIV) testing and counseling PJP = Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia PMTCT = prevention of mother-­ to-­ child transmission (of HIV) PNA = pneumonia PO = by mouth, oral intake, or oral route PPD = purified protein derivative (to test for tuberculosis) PSA = prostate-­ specific antigen PR = pulse rate PRN = as needed PT = prothrombin time PTT = partial thromboplastin time Symbols and Abbreviations xv QID = four times a day RA = right atrium RBBB = right bundle branch block RBC = red blood cell RBG = random blood glucose RDS = respiratory distress syndrome RL = Ringer lactate (aka lactated Ringer) ROM = rupture of membranes ROS = review of systems RR = respiratory rate RSR’ = presence of R wave, S wave, followed by a second R wave RSV = respiratory syncytial virus RUSB = right upper sternal border S. = severe SABA = short-­ acting beta agonist SBP = systolic blood pressure SCD = sickle cell disease SD = standard deviation SIADH = syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion) SIRS = systemic inflammatory response syndrome SOAP = subjective, objective, assessment, and plan SpO2 = oxygen saturation SQ = subcutaneous SV = stroke volume SVC = superior vena cava TB = tuberculosis TID = three times a day TOF = tetralogy of Fallot TPHA = Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay TST = tuberculin skin test UA = urinalysis U&E = urinary electrolytes (basic metabolic panel) UOP = urine output URI = upper respiratory infection xvi Symbols and Abbreviations U.S. = United States UTI = urinary tract infection VBG = venous blood gas VDRL = Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (test for syphilis) V.S. = very severe VSD = ventricular septal defect WBC...


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