publisher colophon

Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

 

Aarseth, E., 89

active aesthetic experience, 85, 198

activity, hybrid physical-digital spaces of visual-performative, 181–82, 194, 196, 201

activity, participatory design, 70–72, 79–83, 199. See also modding and mods; theorycraft

activity theory, 30, 41–42, 42, 56–57, 62, 65, 85, 102

addiction to video games: described, 128; heterogenous mix of resources and, 135; intermittent reinforcement of unpredictable rewards and, 39–40; negative connotation of, 126–27; positive connotation of, 125–26, 133–34; psychological problems as trigger for, 127–28; school and, 124, 125, 127–28, 132; self-regulation and, 125, 129–33; summary, 123, 135–36; video games as cause of, 124–25

aesthetic experience: encoded rules and, 45, 54; game play as, 104; mods as, 151; phases and, 45–46, 46; play and, 6–7, 41, 48; work versus, 44, 49, 94–95, 198; WoW and, 45–46, 54

aesthetic experience theory: activity and, 41, 151; balance and proportion qualities and, 123; flow and, 47, 85; human activities and, 43; means-ends relations and, 44–45; mods and, 151; participatory aesthetic experience and, 41, 48, 68, 70, 79–80, 82–85, 92–93, 194, 197; passion and, 123–24; play and, 101, 151; on relations sustained by an activity, 128; relations sustained by an activity and, 128; remaking of material of experience and, 47–48, 79, 139, 204; sociality and, 47–48, 50–51; subjective disposition toward activity and, 43, 46; summary, 41, 48–51. See also aesthetic experience

aggro: RL, 109, 116–17, 161, 162; in WoW, 109, 147, 206n1

alchemy profession, 9, 12, 112, 209n7

Alliance races, 16, 60. See also specific races

American Medical Association (AMA), 125

Ang, C. S., 5

Apadwe.com, 127

arena play, 55, 206nn2–3

Art as Experience (Dewey), 41

artistry in visual design: awards for, 12; described, 54, 168; of druids, 52, 53, 86, 87, 89, 169; encoded rules and, 74, 76; of gear, 87, 89, 169, 170, 208n20; gear and, 87, 208n20; medium as artistic production and, 80, 198; nostalgia runs due to, 83–84, 208n18; participatory design activity versus, 79–80, 83; resource role of rules and, 83–84, 208nn17–18

Ashby, R., 71

Auctioneer (mod), 147–48

autonomy, and performance, 7, 101, 2056n1

bag slots, 10, 75, 146

Bainbridge, W., 8, 21, 134, 186, 196, 200, 208n16

Bakhtin, M., 161

Bandura, A., 121

Barab, S., 5

Bardzell, J., 43, 56–57, 165

Bardzell, S., 43, 56–57, 165, 209n1

Baudrillard, J., 92, 93

Beavis, C. H., 179

Begole, B., 148

Bell, M., 22

Blizzard Entertainment: on Chinese WoW culture, 176; community, and role of, 83, 149–50, 210n6; design changes by, 62, 80, 206n5, 2067n6; encoded rules in digital entities, and preoccupation of, 35, 199; ethnographic research, and culture of, 35; feedback and, 62, 80, 206n5, 2067n6; masculinist video games by, 211n13; mods and, 149–50, 210n4, 210n6; TBC, and software design alterations by, 62–68, 83–84, 208nn17–18; time-consuming activities to slow down game and, 112

BlizzCon, 6, 18, 21, 35, 80, 117, 150

Blomberg, J., 83

Blood Elves, 16, 159, 169, 170, 208n22

Boellstorff, T., 28, 35, 77, 102

Bohannon, J., 200

boredom and monotony: game play, and respite from RL, 12–13, 48, 115–16; in RL, 97, 104–5, 104–6, 113, 120, 200

boyd, d., 165

Brown, B., 22

buffs and debuffs, 5, 9–11, 115, 149, 210

Burning Crusade, The (TBC), 62–68, 83–84, 208nn17–18

business practices, and applications for video games, 5–6, 109–10, 200

Butler, J., 54

 

Cacioppo, A., 39

Callois, R., 95, 103, 200

Callon, M., 62

Cassell, J., 166, 174

Castronova, E., 108

Cefkin, M., S., 5

CGAlliance, 26

character leveling, 12, 15, 39–40, 45–46, 55, 184, 205n1, 2067n6

cheating, 182–83, 184

Chee, F., 124, 127, 179

Chen, M., 203

Cherny, L., 93

Chinese WoW culture: cross-cultural encounters in, 202–3; demographic data on players of, 190; fraud in, 182–83, 184; gender-bending and, 189–90, 196; gendered practice in, 187–92; gold farming and, 106–7, 176; gold raiding and, 176–77, 183; guilds, and sociality in, 194; heterosexual flirtation and, 190; hybrid physical-digital spaces and, 181–82, 194, 201; Internet cafes and, 7, 26, 177–82, 178, 211n1; ladyboy characters, and male players playing female characters in, 187–89; men, and gendered interactions in, 187–90, 191–92; mods and, 179, 179; participatory aesthetic experience in, 194–96, 195; PK in, 191–92, 211n2; players’ introduction into, 192; point cards in, 183–85; political realities and, 185–86; PvE play in, 190–91, 192; PvP play in, 190–91; raiding as social experience in, 193–94; real money/game transactions in, 106; real money transactions and, 184–85; small living spaces and, 180, 180; sociality and, 21, 179, 180, 193–94, 212n3; summary, 196; TBC release and, 62; women’s introduction into, 192; women’s mastery of performance in, 190–92; worklike activities in game play and, 99

Chmeil, M., 141–42

Choi, H., 179

Choontanom, T., 30, 57, 110

classes: players’ social, 19, 24–25; in WoW, 15, 210n5. See also healing class

CNNIC, 179

Cohen, S., 124

collaboration, and sociality, 5, 21, 55, 193, 212n3

collective order. See encoded rules in digital entities; resource role of rules

combat log, 57–58, 206n3

community, in context of encoded rules, 83, 149–50, 210n6. See also sociality

Consalvo, M., 61, 69, 166, 207n11

contingency element, in games and game play, 103, 104, 142, 155

Comeliussen, H., 156, 159, 166, 168, 171, 172, 199, 212n1

corpse camping, 17

Counter-Strike (video game), 143, 210n1

Crabtree, A., 181

critical thinking skills, and theorycraft, 139–42

cross-cultural encounters, 194–96, 195, 202–3

Csikszentmihalyi, M., 47

cultural logics of WoW. See addiction; Chinese WoW culture; gendered practice; modding and mods; theorycraft

 

damage meters, 58, 59, 207n15

Damer, B., 93, 205n2

Deadly Boss Mods (DBM), 81–82

debuffs and buffs, 5, 9–11, 115, 149, 210n5

decursing, 149, 210n5

Decursive (mod), 149

Delwiche, A., 6

De Meyer, G., 93

Derelict (pseud.) guild, 31, 67, 109

design. See encoded rules in digital entities; resource role of rules

Dewey, J., 41, 44. See also aesthetic experience theory

Dibbell, J., 106–7

Dicki, M., 185

DiGiuseppe, N., 21, 29, 158

DKP (Dragon Kill Points), 177, 207n10

Draenei, 16, 209n5

druids: artistry in visual design of, 52, 53, 86, 87, 89, 169; critical thinking skills, and customizing, 141–42; cross-cultural encounters and, 202–3; described, 15, 52, 53

Ducheneaut, N., 14–15, 16, 21, 39, 166, 208n19, 209n8

Duncan, S., 142

dungeons: described, 15–16; instances and, 119; nostalgia runs and, 208n18; raiding, 58–60, 209n10; TBC and, 62–67, 83–84. See also specific dungeons

Dutton, W., 109

dwarfpriest.com, 139–41

Dwarfs, 16, 139–41, 159, 203

 

Ellis, J., 70

Ellison, N., 165, 182

Ellul, J., 62

empowerment, 57, 148

encoded rules in digital entities: activity theory and, 62; aesthetic experience and, 45, 54; artistry in visual design and, 74, 76; community in context of, 83, 149–50, 210n6; constitution of technology and, 72–73; corporate preoccupations reflected in, 35, 199; feedback, and discourse about, 62, 80, 206n5, 2067n6; game play and, 117–18, 137, 210n1; gear and, 75, 209n5; hackers and, 69–70, 73, 198; human activities in video games, and impact on, 7, 18, 46–47, 61; life online shaped by, 61; magic circle and, 118; mangle notion and, 70–73, 207n8; mods and, 70–72, 80–83, 149, 210n6; participatory aesthetic experience and, 198; Second Life and, 77–79, 207n13; TBC, and changes to, 62–68, 83–84, 208nn17–18; video games and, 61–62, 206n5, 2067n6; in WoW, 61, 62–68, 80–82, 83–84, 208nn17–18. See also resource role of rules

Engeström, Y., 65

enterprise resource planning systems, 68–69, 72, 207n7

ethnographic research, 4–7, 27–35, 56, 177; activity theory and, 30; author’s introduction to WoW and, 4–5; Blizzard culture and, 35; dates for, 6; described, 27–29; invitations to guilds and, 32–33; mastery of performance and, 34, 56; methodology in, 28, 29–30, 34, 177; participant-engagement in, 35; participant-observation in, 28, 30–31, 34–35; participant researchers’ identification and, 35; perturbance in, 32; sites for, 7, 29–30; sources for information and, 33–34

European WoW culture: Corneliussen and, 156, 159, 166, 168, 171, 172, 199, 212n1; gold farming and, 176; guilds and, 59, 99–100, 163–64; hybrid physical-digital spaces and, 182, 201; TBC release and, 62, 66

Everquest (video game), 4, 13–14, 57, 166, 171

 

family: guilds and, 25, 26, 31, 154; masculine rhetoric and, 155; self-regulation and, 100, 101, 107, 109, 124, 125, 135; video games, and play with, 21, 26, 179, 182, 192

Farmer, R., 70, 93

farming: as capitalist labor, 112–13; defined, 59, 110; gold, 106–7, 176; RL, and links with, 110–16, 114, 209nn4–7; as time-consuming activity to slow down game, 112; worklike activities in game play and, 98–99, 102

Fawcett, B., 12

feedback on changes in design, 62, 80, 206n5, 2067n6, 209n5

Fields, D., 5

Final Fantasy (video game), 4, 187

Flanagan, M., 174

flow, 27, 44–45, 47, 85–86

fraud, 182–83, 184

Freire, P., 156

Fron, J., 61, 73, 159, 166, 173, 207n9

Fujimoto, T., 88

Fullerton, T., 19, 166, 167–68, 172, 173, 174, 211n12

 

game geography coordinates, 146

game mechanics, and encoded rules, 137, 210n1

game play: as aesthetic experience, 104; apart together feelings in, 116; boredom and monotony, and respite in world of, 12–13, 48, 115–16; business practices and, 6, 109–10, 200; contingency element in, 103, 104, 142, 155; encoded rules in digital entities and, 117–18, 137, 210n1; in Korea, 8, 19, 107–8, 176, 179, 203; mastery of performance valued in, 55, 57; not-play and, 108–16, 120; professional gaming and, 106–8; RL, and links with, 108–16, 120; Skinnerian dynamics and, 55, 133; subjective dispositions toward activity and, 104, 199; summary, 94, 103, 120, 199–200; violence and, 14, 205nn3–4; worklike activities in, 95, 98–99, 98–100, 102, 106–8, 110, 111, 200. See also activity theory; magic circle; mastery of performance; play

games, 4, 7, 73, 94, 103–4, 142, 199, 207n9. See also game play; play

Games, I., 5

ganking, 17, 71, 119

Garvey, C., 98, 103, 118

Gatherer (mod), 147, 148

gear: arena play and, 206n2; artistry in visual design of, 87, 89, 169, 170, 208n20; encoded rules and, 75, 209n5; feedback on changes in design of, 209n5; fraud and, 184; metrics and, 61; mods for organization of, 146; performance, and impact of, 58, 65–66, 113–14, 177; raiding and, 63–66; sociality and, 65–66, 74; TBC and, 83–84; theorycraft, and analysis of, 139–41; worklike activities, and materials for, 100, 110, 200

Gee, J., 5

Geertz, C., 199

gendered practice: Chinese, 187–92; cross-gendered activities and, 169, 171–72; dampened heterosexual interactive and, 160–61; demographic data on players and, 19–20; dominant plane of gendered interaction, 158–61, 166, 173, 211nn9–10; emotes and, 9, 160, 164–65; female character design and, 159, 166–75, 170; female players playing male characters and, 172–73; female-unfriendly practices and, 163–64; feminine design of and, 167–69, 211n12; gender-bending and, 160, 189–90, 196; gender dynamics and, 161, 172; gendered language, 20, 153–56; heterosexual flirtation and, 158, 162, 164–66, 190, 211n8, 211n11; homophobic language, 20, 153, 154, 156, 157; ladyboy characters and, 187–89; magic circle and, 157, 173; male character design and, 168, 169, 170, 171, 211n14; masculine adjectives for vernacular names, 15; mastery of performance and, 57, 190–92; NPCs and, 168–69; secondary plane of gendered interaction, 158, 162–66, 164–66, 211n8, 211n11; sexual fun in chat and, 190; summary, 152, 173–75, 199; unaccountablity for rhetoric and, 155. See also men players; women players

gendered sensibilities, and design of video games, 167–68, 172, 174

Gnomes, 16, 67, 203

gold, game, 46, 106–7, 176–77, 183. See also money transactions, real

Golub, A.: citations, 28, 56, 59, 124, 185; on homophobic language, 156; on men’s rhetoric, 157; on mods, 81–82; on performative demands of raiding, 56; on sexualized language, 153–54, 156; on worklike activities, 209n5

Graner Ray, S., 166, 173

Greenberg, S., 148

grinding, 99, 110. See also farming

Grohol, J. M., 125

Groleau, C., 65

group play, 74–75, 207n10

guilds: Chinese, 194; described, 9, 14–15; family and, 25, 26, 31, 154; hierarchy, 202; Hoodoos, 31, 32; invitations to, 32–33; shared characteristics of players in, 25–26; sociality and, 25–26, 194; TBC, and software change effects on, 63–66; Terror Nova, 31, 163; website postings for, 33–34. See also Scarlet Raven (pseud.) guild; specific guilds

Gutwin, C., 148

 

hackers, and encoded rules, 69–70, 73, 198

Hansen, S., 77

Harris, J., 21, 22, 29

HAWT descriptor, 87, 208n20

Hayes, E., 103, 159, 161, 166, 173, 174

healing class: alchemy profession and, 9, 12, 112, 209n7; decursing and, 149, 210n5; described, 15; metrics, 58, 81, 206n3, 207n15

Heath, C., 148

hierarchy, 41–42, 42, 85, 102, 202

Hoodoos guild, 31, 32

Hook, S., 43

Horde races, 16

Huhtamo, E., 93

Huisman, J.-W., 84–85

Huizinga, J.: on apart together feelings, 116; on game play, 103; on moral principles, 101; on play, 95, 97, 102, 116, 118, 200, 2089n2

human activities: aesthetic experience theory and, 43; and impact in video games, 7, 18, 61; in video games, and impact on encoded rules in digital entities, 7, 18, 61; in visual-performative media, 7, 8

Humans, 16, 159

humor, 60–61, 67, 130

Hunter, D., 13–14, 76, 93

hybrid physical-digital spaces, 181–82, 194, 196, 201

Innikka (pseud.): emotes used by, 160, 165; game play and, 9–12; gendered practice and, 154–55; gold raiding by, 177; as healer, 81, 207nn14–15; mastery of performance by, 34, 56; mods and, 82, 207n14; Night Elf race and, 5, 16, 159; participant-observation ethnographic research, 30; participant-observation in ethnographic research and, 28, 30–31, 34–35; screenshot of, 13

instances (instanced play): magic circle and, 118–20

Internet cafes (wang ba): access to digital technologies and, 179, 211n1; Chinese WoW culture and, 7, 26, 177–82, 178, 211n1; as hybrid physical-digital spaces, 181; sociality and, 180, 181, 193

Isenberg, Karl, 143–44

Ito, M., 28, 137, 150

 

Jackson, P., 43

Jenkins, H., 92, 137, 166, 174

Jerz, D., 88, 92, 143

Jha, P., 19

Jordan, W., 69, 73, 207n9

Juul, J., 88, 94, 102, 103, 110, 118

 

Kafai, Y., 5, 142, 166

Kallinikos, J., 61, 62, 68–70, 72–73, 207n7

Kaptelinin, V., 40–41, 43, 62

Karazhan (Kara) dungeon, 63, 67, 68, 71, 76, 90, 168

Kavetsky, J., 17, 154, 173

Kelty, C., 145

Kendall, L., 137

Kennedy, H., 57, 103, 166, 172, 192

Kensing, F., 83

Klastrup, L., 17, 166

Korea, game play in, 8, 19, 107–8, 176, 179, 203

Kow, Y. M., 30, 146, 150, 183, 210n2

Kraut, R., 123, 125, 128, 129, 130

Kucklich, J., 137, 143

Kuutti, K., 85

 

LambdaMoo (video game), 76, 93

Lampe, C., 182

LandoverBaptist.org, 26

Lang, T., 181, 193

Lastowka, F., 13–14, 76, 93

Latour, B., 62

Leontiev, A., 6, 18, 40–41

leveling, 12, 15, 39–40, 45–46, 55, 184, 205n1, 2067n6

Li, Z., 6

Lin, H., 45

Linden Lab, 35, 77–79. See also Second Life

Lindtner, S., 21, 29, 179, 181

Lineage (video game), 71–75, 120, 211n12

Lingley, K., 124, 185

Liuning, Z., 180

lonely player stereotype, 20–21, 29, 127

Lowood, H., 137

Luff, P., 148

Ly, S., 202

Lyotard, J.-F., 73

 

magic circle: encoded rules and, 118; gendered practice and, 157, 173; instances and, 118–20, 209nn9–11; not-play and, 116; play and, 102, 108, 116, 117; RL and, 108; summary, 123; WoW and, 118–20, 157, 173, 209nn9–11

Magtheridon’s Lair, 56

Malaby, T., 28, 35, 77, 78–79, 102–3, 108, 199

Malliet, S., 93

Malone, K.-L., 33

mangle notion, 70–73, 207n8

Mankekar, P., 92

Marckmann, H., 84–85

mastery of performance: described, 59; flow and, 85–86; game play, and valued quality of, 55, 57; metrics of, 57–58; performative challenges and, 52, 55; play, and valued quality of, 14, 40; valued quality of, 14, 40, 55, 57–58; in video games, 52, 55; women and, 57, 190–92; in WoW, 15, 34, 55–56

medium, visual-performative media. See visual-performative media

men players: about, 187–92; female characters played by, 158–61, 173, 187–89, 211nn9–10; female-unfriendly practices by, 163–64; gender-bending and, 160, 189–90, 196; gender dynamics and, 161, 172; gendered rhetoric and, 20, 153–56, 210nn1–4; heterosexual flirtation and, 158, 162, 164–66, 190, 211n8, 211n11; homophobic rhetoric by, 20, 153, 154, 156, 157; ladyboy characters and, 187–89; men’s disputes with, 162–63; rhetorical practices of, 20, 153, 156–57, 210nn1–2, 210n4, 210–11n7. See also players

metrics: combat log and, 57–58, 206n3; damage meters mods for, 58, 59, 207n15; gear and, 61; healing class and, 58, 81, 206n3, 207n15

Miller, D., 28

Miller, S., 101, 103, 115, 116

MMORPG, 17–18, 202

Mnookin, J., 93

mobs (monster/mobile), 10, 56, 80, 82, 84, 90, 110, 153

modding and mods: as aesthetic experience, 151; Blizzard and, 149–50, 210n4, 210n6; Chinese, 179, 179; community, and role of, 149–50, 210n6; creation of, 70–72, 80–83, 143–47, 199; damage meters and, 58, 59, 207n15; data on, 143, 210n2; distribution of, 58, 143; empowerment and, 148; encodes rules and, 70–72, 80–83, 149, 210n6; fame and, 145; function of, 146–48; game geography coordinates, 146; gear organization and, 146; history of, 143; participatory design activity and, 70–72, 80–83, 199; resource role of rules, and effects of, 81–82, 207n14; sociality and, 148, 150–51; updates, and care for, 143, 145, 146

money transactions, real, 106, 184–85. See also gold, game

monster/mobile (mobs), 10, 56, 80, 82, 84, 90, 110, 153

Moore, R., 21

moral principles, 101, 124, 129–30, 186–87

Morningstar, C., 70, 93

Mortensen, T., 166

Mulvey, L., 159

Mumford, L., 62

Murray, J., 88

 

Nakamura, L., 176

Nardi, B.: on business applications for video games, 6; citations, 40–41, 43; on fraud, 183; on male players playing female characters, 158; on mods, 146, 148, 150, 210n2; on power of technology, 62; productive play seminar and, 70; on sociality, 21, 22

Night Elves, 5, 16, 159

Nihilum (pseud.) guild, 59, 99–100, 163–64

Nissenbaum, H., 174

Noël, S., 16

nonplayer characters (NPCs), 17, 90, 116, 143, 159, 168

nostalgia runs, 83–84, 208nn17–18

not-play, 95–98, 97, 104–5, 104–6, 108–16, 120

NPCs (nonplayer characters), 17, 90, 116, 143, 159, 168

 

Odom, W., 209n1

Orcs, 16, 119, 159

Orlikowski, W., 69

 

participant-engagement, 35

participant-observation, 28, 30–31, 34–35

participant researchers, identification of, 35

participatory aesthetic experience: aesthetic experience theory and, 41, 48, 68, 70, 79–80, 82–85, 92–93, 197; in Chinese WoW culture, 194–96, 195; common core of, 194, 195; encoded rules and, 198; performance and, 57, 84–86, 93; resource role of rules, and nurtured, 76, 198; in WoW, 85, 92, 137, 194

participatory design activity, 70–72, 79–83, 199. See also modding and mods; theorycraft

Pearce, C., 28, 35, 70, 95, 137, 156, 210n6

performance: arena play and, 55, 206nn2–3; autonomy and, 7, 101, 2056n1; described, 54; gear, and impact on, 58, 65–66, 113–14, 177; humor, and salience of, 60–61, 67; metrics of, 57–58, 206n3; participatory aesthetic experience and, 57, 84–86, 93; progression and, 58–60, 66, 72, 74, 86; raiding and, 55–56; sociality, and effects on, 64–65; subjectivity and, 56–57; video games and, 55–61. See also raiding

Perkins, C., 39

Peterson, H., 21, 182

Peterson, L., 28

phases, 45–46, 46

Pickering, A., 70–71

pickup groups (pugs), 18, 46, 74–75, 160, 184, 211n10

PK (player kill), 191–92, 211n2

play: as aesthetic experience, 6–7, 41, 48; aesthetic experience theory and, 151; arena, 55, 206nn2–3; autonomy and, 101; characteristics of, 14, 102–3; group, 74–75, 207n10; heterosexual flirtation and, 162, 190; hierarchy of activities and, 102; instanced, 118–20, 209nn9–11; magic circle and, 102, 108, 116, 117; meaningfulness of, 116; professional gaming and, 106–7; progress as motivation in, 39, 40; rewards as motivation in, 39–40; RL, and links with, 108, 113, 120; Skinnerian dynamics and, 39, 40; summary, 94, 120; value of, 95, 97, 200, 2089n2; of video games with family, 21, 26, 179, 182, 192; in visual-performative media, 203–4; voluntariness of, 97–98, 101, 106, 2089n2; work, and subjective separation from, 95, 97–98, 100, 102, 209n3; worklike elements in, 102. See also activity theory; aesthetic experience theory

player kill (PK), 191–92, 211n2

players: “alone together” feelings of, 209n8; demographic data on, 18–19, 19–20, 26, 83, 190, 208n16; diversity of, 20–21; introduction into WoW and, 4–5, 152–53, 192; shared characteristics of, 25–26; social classes of, 19, 24–25. See also men players; women players

point cards, 183–85

Polin, L., 5

political realities and WoW, 185–86

Poole, S., 95, 111, 112, 209

Postigo, H., 137, 143, 150

Powell, A., 179

power leveling services, 46, 184

priest forums, 57, 82, 207n15

problematic use of video games. See addiction to video games

professional gaming, 106–8

progression, 58–60, 66, 72, 74, 86

pugs (pickup groups), 18, 46, 74–75, 160, 184, 211n10

pwning opponents, 16, 71, 171, 173

 

Qiu, J., 180

Quake (video game), 57, 172

 

races, 16, 203. See also specific races

Raessens, J., 84, 85, 86

raiding and raiding guilds: about, 9, 31; causal, 11; damage meters and, 58, 59, 207n15; gear and, 63–66; gendered rhetoric, 154; gold, 176–77, 183; mastery of performance and, 34, 55–56; performance and, 55–56; performative demands of, 56; pickup groups and, 18, 46, 74–75, 160, 184, 211n10; raiding described, 9, 15; sociality, 65, 193–94; worklike activities and, 100. See also Scarlet Raven (pseud.) guild

Rea, S., 107, 179, 203

real life (RL): aggro and, 109, 116–17, 161, 162; farming, and links with, 110–16, 114, 209nn4–7; game play, and links with, 108–16, 120; hybrid physical-digital spaces and, 181–82, 194, 196, 201; magic circle and, 108; play, and links with, 113, 120; power leveling services and, 46, 184; self-regulation and, 130–33; third space and, 120, 127, 209n11; WoW, and links with, 108–16, 120

Recount (mod), 58, 59, 81, 207n15

Reeves, B., 6

remaking of material of experience, 47–48, 79, 139, 151, 204

resource role of rules: artistry in visual design of and, 83–84, 208nn17–18; group play and, 74–75, 207n10; loot distribution as example of, 75–76, 207nn11–12; mods, and effects on, 81–82, 207n14; participatory aesthetic experience of being nurtured and, 76, 198

Rettberg, S., 95, 111, 113, 124, 209n6

Rheingold, H., 93

rhetoric: gendered, 20, 153–54, 210nn1–4; HAWT descriptor and, 87, 208n20; homophobic, 20, 153, 154, 156, 157, 210n1; negotiated, 20, 26; school, and gendered, 155–56, 157; sexualized, 20, 153–54, 156, 157; unaccountablity for, 155; unequal position of women, and men’s, 154–55, 210n5; video games, and gendered, 20, 153, 210n1; video games, and role in travel of, 203; women players and, 153, 156, 157, 210n2, 210–11n7; work, and gendered, 155–56, 157

Rickadams.org, 92

Rodden, T., 181

rules. See encoded rules in digital entities; resource role of rules

Ryan, P., 69

 

Salen, K., 117

Scacchi, W., 145

Scarlet Raven (pseud.) guild: damage meters and, 58; demographic data, 31, 33; described, 11; dissolution of, 67; ethos, 33; as family, 25; fraud in, 184; gender data, 31; members described, 30–31; participant-observation ethnographic research, 30; TBC, and software change effects on, 63–65

Schechner, R., 118

school: boredom, and monotony at, 97, 104–5, 113, 120, 200; gendered rhetoric and, 155–56, 157; as not-play, 97, 104–5; rhetorical practice to deploy unequal position of women in, 155; self-regulation and, 129–30, 133; vacancy in student’s life and, 133; video games, and applications in, 141–42; WoW addiction and, 124, 125, 127–28, 132

Schoolcraft, H., 27

Schramm, M., 110

Seay, F., 123, 125, 128, 129, 130

Second Life: adult-themed activity reputation of, 134, 209n1; citation, 134; described, 6, 17, 77, 78–79; design, and impact on, 79; encoded rules in, 77–79, 207n13; gamelike environments for business and, 6, 200; Linden Lab and, 35, 77–79; participant researchers in, 35; as virtual world, 17–18

Seed, P., 142

self-regulation: addiction to video games, 125, 129–33; family and, 100, 101, 107, 124, 125, 135; moral principles and, 129–30; work and, 100, 101

Serpentshrine Cavern (SSC), 9–12, 58, 99, 119

servers, 16–17, 190–93

Sharritt, M., 5

Sicart, M., 210n1

Skinnerian dynamics, 55, 133

Slater, D., 28

Smith, R., 124

sociality: “alone together” feelings and, 209n8; boys’ tree house metaphor for, 153, 210n3; in Chinese culture, 21, 179, 180, 193–94, 212n3; collaboration and, 5, 21, 55, 193, 212n3; diversity of players and, 20–21; gear and, 65–66, 74; guilds and, 25–26, 194; performance, and effects of, 64–65; problematic use and, 129–30; raiding, and contradiction to, 65; self-regulation and, 129–30; sociable chats, 3–4, 15, 22–23; social classes of players of, 19, 24–25

software modifications: participatory design activity and, 70–72, 79–83, 199; TBC and, 62–68, 83–84, 208nn17–18. See also modding and mods; theorycraft

spectacle of images in visual design, 86–92, 91, 198, 208nn19–22

Spinuzzi, C., 43

Squire, K., 5

SSC (Serpentshrine Cavern), 9–12, 58, 99, 119

Starcraft (video game), 211n13

Steinkuehler, C., 200; citations, 5, 21, 48, 106, 127; on interactive stabilization, 70–71, 72; on pedagogical value of video game activities, 141–42; on WoW as third space, 120

stereotypic lonely player, 20–21, 29, 127

Stevens, P., 47, 95, 2089n2

Stewart, K., 179

Strathern, M., 28

subjective separation from: work, 95, 97–98, 100, 102, 209n3

subjectivity: activity theory and, 56–57; dispositions toward activity and, 43, 46, 104, 199; performance and, 56–57; work and play separation and, 95, 97–98, 100, 102, 209n3

Sudden Attack (video game), 203

Sun, C., 45

Sutton-Smith, B., 109, 113, 147

 

Takhteyev, Y., 210n4

Tang, J., 148

Taylor, T. L.: citations, 15, 21, 33, 73, 81, 103, 159, 174; on design of female characters, 166, 171; on encoded rules in digital entities shaping online life, 61; on EverQuest, 14, 57; on females playing male characters, 173; on females’ sense of safety, 211n11; on instancing, 120; on metrics of mastery of performance, 57–58; on mods, 82; on participatory design activity, 79–80, 82; on violence in video games, 14

TBC (The Burning Crusade ), 62–68, 83–84, 208nn17–18

television, 92, 134, 136, 197, 202–3, 208n23

text-based role-playing games, 88–89, 92–93

Thelwall, M., 156, 210n7

theorycraft, 137–42, 151

third space, 120, 209n11

Thomas, S., 181, 193

Thottbot.com, 60–62, 137, 177, 2056n1, 2067n6

Toma, C., 165

Tschang, F., 12

Turkle, S., 57, 92, 135, 159

Turner, V., 14, 95, 110, 113, 120, 209n3

 

Ultima Online (video game), 14

Undead, 16, 185–86

Upper Black Rock Spire (UBRS) dungeon, 66, 67

 

Vandenberg, B., 101, 155, 156, 162

Victorian memes, 13–14

video games: critical thinking skills and, 141–42; culture, and applications for, 5–6, 109–10, 141–42, 200; described, 197; encoded rules and, 61–62, 206n5, 2067n6; gendered rhetoric in, 20, 153, 210n1; gendered sensibilities, and design of, 167–68, 172, 174; impact of human activities in, 7, 18, 61; language travel, and role of, 203; masculinist, 167, 168, 172, 211n13; mastery of performance in, 52, 55; performance contours in, 55–61; play in, 7; vacancy in student’s life and, 133. See also addiction to video games; visual-performative media; specific video games

violence, and game play, 14, 205nn3–4

virtual world/experience, 8, 13–14, 17–18

visual design, and spectacle of images in, 86–92, 91, 198, 208nn19–22

visual-performative activity, 85, 181–82, 194, 196, 198, 201

visual-performative media: accessibility of, 54; autonomy and, 7; complexity in, 7, 9, 54; described, 7, 8; design of female characters off-putting to women and, 166; educators on, 5; engagement in RL activities and, 197–98; as global artifact alternative to traditional media, 196, 202–3; human activity in stimulating visual environment and, 7, 8; hybrid physical-digital spaces and, 182, 196, 201; interactive stabilization in, 70–72; MMORPG and, 17–18, 202; moral principles and, 124, 129–30, 186–87; performative described, 52, 54; play in, 14, 40, 203–4; real world visual-performative activities and, 54; rewards and, 7, 39–40, 55, 72, 113, 116, 197; as spectacle of images, 86–92, 91, 208nn19–22; texts and narrative in, 88–89; third space in, 120, 127, 209n11

voluntariness of play, 97–98, 101, 106, 2089n2

von Bertalanffy, L., 71

Vu, T., 29

Vygotsky, L., 18, 68

 

Wakeford, N., 179

wang ba (Internet cafes). See Internet cafes (wang ba)

whispers, 9–10

Whitehead J., 143

Williams, D., 21, 48, 120, 127, 210n3

Williams, M., 28

Willis, P., 143

Wilson, S., 28

Wine, C., 57, 82, 199, 207n15, 210n4

Winner, L., 62, 190

wipe, 11, 55–56, 208n17

women players: acceptance into for, 153, 173–75; heterosexual flirtation and, 158, 162, 164–66, 190, 211n8, 211n11; introduction into for, 152–53, 192; male characters played by, 172–73; mastery of performance and, 57, 190–92; men’s rhetorical practice to deploy unequal position of, 154–55, 210n5; place in dominant plane of gendered interaction for, 160–61; rhetorical practices of, 153, 156, 157, 210n2, 210–11n7. See also players

work: aesthetic experience versus, 44, 49, 94–95, 198; boredom, and monotony at, 97, 104–6, 113, 120, 200; gamelike environments for work and, 5–6, 147, 200; gendered rhetoric and, 155–56, 157; hierarchy of activities and, 102; moral principles and, 101; as play, 85; play versus, 95, 97, 106–8, 200, 2089n2; professional gaming and, 106–8; RL, and links with, 110–16, 114, 209nn4–7; self-regulation and, 130–31; subjective separation from, 95, 97–98, 100, 102, 209n3; unequal position of women, and rhetoric at, 155; visual-performative media, and role in global, 202

worklike activities: Chinese WoW Culture, 99; complaints about, 209n5; farming and, 98–99, 102; feedback about, 209n5; in game play, 95, 98–99, 98–100, 102, 106–8, 110, 111, 200; gear materials and, 100, 110, 200; as not-play, 95–98, 104–6; in play, 102; raiding and, 100

World of Warcraft (WoW): accessibility and appeal of, 8, 54; active aesthetic experience and, 85, 198; activities pursued while playing, 134–35; as aesthetic experience, 54; demographic data on players of, 18–19, 26, 83, 190, 208n16; described, 12, 16, 197, 205n1, 206n4; multiple characters in, 14, 146; players’ introduction into, 4–5, 152–53, 192; servers in, 16–17, 192, 193; texts and narrative in, 88, 89

worldofwarcraft.com, 163, 210n6, 222

WoW Web Stats (WWS), 58, 81

Wright, T., 210n1

 

Yee, N.: citations, 6, 95, 137; on demographic data on players, 19–20; on farming, 209n6; on game play, 99, 111, 112; on gendered practice, 160

 

Zaphiris, P., 5

Zimmerman, E., 117

Previous Chapter

References

Additional Information

ISBN
9780472026715
Related ISBN
9780472050987
MARC Record
OCLC
864844304
Pages
227-236
Launched on MUSE
2012-01-01
Language
English
Open Access
Yes
Back To Top

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Without cookies your experience may not be seamless.