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Contents PREFACE Xl INTRODUCTION 1 Roe v. Wad!: under Attack 1 Individual Rights and Majority Rule 2 Constitution,al Interpretation 8 Preview of Chapters 14 CHAPTER 1. The Derivation of Roe v. Wade 17 Economic Substantive Due Process 18 Due Process and the Family 20 Contraception and Privacy in Griswold v. Connecticut 24 Contraception and Privacy in Eisenstadt v. Baird 28 Blackmun's Privacy Rationale in Roe v. Wade 30 Stewart's Due Process Rationale in Roe v. Wade 38 Tribe on Substantive Due Process 44 Conclusion 49 CHAPTER 2. Potentiality and Viability 50 The Roe v. Wade Decision 51 The Concept of Viability in Abortion Cases 53 Dividing the Gestational Continuum 56 The Genetic Approach to Personhood 60 Viability versus Similarity to Newborns 65 Vlll Two Consequentialist Arguments 67 Feminism and Viability 72 Conclusion 76 CHAPTER 3. The Evolution of "Religion" 78 Religion in the Abortion Debate 79 The Original Understanding of the Religion Clauses 83 The Evolution of Religion Clause Doctrine 85 Incorporation of the Religion Clauses 85 From Belief to Practice 86 Alleviating Indirect Burdens on Religious Practice 87 Expanding the Meaning of "Religion" 88 The Original Understanding View 93 Bork: Conservative or Moderate? 99 Conflicts between the Religion Clauses 104 The Elusive Meaning of "Religion" 108 Conclusion 110 CHAPTER 4. The Definition of "Religion" 111 The Adjectival Sense of Religion 113 Contents Religious Beliefs Independent of Organized Religions 114 Religious Belief as Fundamental to Organized Religion 116 Secular (Nonreligious) Belief 119 Secular Beliefs Related to Material Reality 121 Secular Beliefs Related to Social Interaction 124 Secular Facts versus Secular Values 126 The Court's Characterizations of Secular Beliefs 128 The Epistemological Standard for Distinguishing Religious from Secular Belief 131 Judicial Examples of Religious Beliefs 132 General Characteristics of Religious Beliefs 134 Summary 138 CHAPTER 5. "Religion" in Court 141 The Epistemological Standard Applied 142 Cults and Crazies 146 Secular Religions 149 Contents Tensions between the Religion Clauses 154 The Unitary Definition of "Religion" 159 CHAPTER 6. Fetal Personhood as Religious Belief 161 Anti-Contraception Laws and the Establishment Clause 162 Belief in the Existence of God 167 Belief in the Personhood of Young Fetuses 170 Distinguishing Religious from Secular Determinations of Fetal Personhood 175 Religious versus Secular Uncertainty 181 Environmental Preservation and Animal Protection versus Fetal Value 184 Greenawalt's Argument 184 The Reach of Secular Considerations 186 Secular versus Religious Matters 188 Conclusion 189 CHAPTER 7. The Regulation of Abortion 191 The Trimester Framework and Its Exceptions 192 IX O'Connor's Objections to the Trimester Framework 194 Superiority of the Establishment Clause Approach to the Trimester Framework 197 Required Efforts to Save the Fetus 200 The Neutrality Principle 201 Appropriate Judicial Skepticism 204 Undue Burdens and Unconstitutional Endorsements 209 Conclusion 211 CHAPTER 8. Abortion and Others 213 Public Funding of Abortion 214 The Establishment Clause Approach to Public Funding 214 The Court's Funding Rationale 218 Information Requirements 222 The Court's Inconsistent Rationale 222 Publicly Funded Family Planning Clinics 226 Spousal and Parental Consent 229 Spousal Consent 230 The Court's Flawed Parental Consent Rationale 230 x Contents The Establishment Clause Approach: Medical Dimension 232 The Establishment Clause Approach: Religious Dimension 236 Parental Notification 238 Implications of the Establishment Clause Approach 239 The Court's Inconsistency 240 Equivalent Results 241 Conclusion 242 CONCLUSION 245 Justice Scalia's View 246 The Fundamental Flaw in Roe 247 The Rationale for the Establishment Clause Approach 248 Advantages of the Establishment Clause Approach 249 NOTES 251 GLOSSARY OF TERMS 269 ANNOTATED TABLE OF CASES 273 BIBLIOGRAPHY 283 INDEX 287 ...


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