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151 Notes Introduction 1. Yamada, Camp Notes, 39. 2. Anzaldúa, Borderlands, 25. 3. Ibid., 26. 4. DeGuzmán, Spain’s Long Shadow, 301. 5. Pratt, Imperial Eyes, 8. 6. Such sociological studies include George Yancey’s Who Is White? Latinos, Asians, and the New Black/Nonblack Divide (2003) and Eileen O’Brien’s The Racial Middle: Latinos and Asian Americans Living Beyond the Racial Divide (2008). For sociological and historical approaches that focus on particular Latina/o-­Asian parallels, see Julian Go’s American Empire and the Politics of Meaning: Elite Political Cultures in the Philippines and Puerto Rico (2008) and JoAnna Poblete’s Islanders in the Empire: Filipino and Puerto Rican Laborers in Hawai’i (2014). Recent intersectional studies include Rudy P. Guevarra, Jr.’s Becoming Mexipino: Multiethnic Identities and Communities in San Diego (2012) and Anthony Christian Ocampo’s The Latinos of Asia: How Filipino Americans Break the Rules of Race (2016). 7. Jones-­Puthoff, “Is the U.S. Population Getting Older and More Diverse?” 8. White, The Fiction of Narrative, 112. 9. Jones-­Puthoff, “Is the U.S. Population Getting Older and More Diverse?” This statistic can be constructed from Jones-­ Puthoff’s chart that shows that the number of people identifying as “non-­Hispanic white alone” was 197.7 million out of 313.9 million U.S. residents in 2012. 10. Kochhar, Fry, and Taylor, “Wealth Gaps Rise to Record Highs Between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics.” 11. Manning, “Membership of the 112th Congress: A Profile.” 12. “U.S. Census Bureau Statistics on Population Change,” C-­SPAN video, 30:01. June 14, 2013. https://​www​.c​-­span​.org​/video​/​?313378​-­4​/us​-­census​-­bureau​-­statistics​-­us​-­population​ -­ change. The very category “non-­ Hispanic white alone” reveals the idea of the majority-­ minority as one of white racial anxiety. In the C-­SPAN video, the Census Bureau representative explains this category in terms of tradition: “We actually use ‘non-­ Hispanic white’ as sort of a traditional term to represent the majority of the population of the country, which is ‘non-­ Hispanic white alone,’ not in combination with other races.” While the concept might reflect the racial politics of the past, however, the term itself is far from “traditional”; the category “Hispanic” has only been in use by the U.S. Census since 1980, and the word “alone” has only been necessary since 2000, which was the first year in which citizens were allowed to self-­ identify as more than one race. On the contrary, the very combination of exclusive categories present in the term, one that requires a resident to identify with only one racial category, and not with one particular ethnic group, emphasizes its highly constructed nature. For additional reports emphasizing race and minority encroachment, see the U.S. Census Bureau’s publications “Asians Fastest Growing Race or Ethnic Group in 2012, Census Bureau Reports,” which contains the subheading Six More Counties Become Majority-­ Minority (June 13, 2013, http://​www​.census​.gov​/newsroom​/press​-­releases​/2013​/cb13​-­112.html) and “Most Children Younger than Age 1 Are Minorities, Census Bureau Reports” which focuses on the number of states and counties that were “majority-­ minority” as of 2011 (May 17, 2012, http://​ census​ .gov ​/newsroom​/releases​/archives​/population​/cb12-­90.html). 152 Notes to Pages 6–13 13. Pett, “It’s So You’ll Know Which Ones to Fear.” 14. These words are taken from Emma Lazarus’s poem “The New Colossus,” which was inscribed on a bronze tablet and mounted on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty in 1903. Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” 525. 15. Omi and Winant, Racial Formation in the United States, 15. 16. St. John de Crèvecoeur, “Letters from an American Farmer,” 27. 17. Quoted in Sollors, Beyond Ethnicity, 66. 18. Ibid., 66. 19. St. John de Crèvecoeur, “Letters from an American Farmer,” 29. 20. Ignatiev, How the Irish Became White. Historian Paul Spickard also notes that “there is a fundamental difference between the experiences of peoples of color and those of White immigrants. . . . The assimilation model does not work for people of color. No amount of wishing will make it so” (Almost All Aliens, 14). 21. Omi and Winant, Racial Formation in the United States, 55–56. In 1997, the American Anthropological Association released a statement advocating the combination of the terms “race” and “ethnicity” into “race/ethnicity,” on the basis that “both Hispanic and non-­ Hispanic respondents tend to treat the two questions as asking for essentially the same...


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