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the brookings essay In the spirit of its commitment to high-­ quality, independent research, the Brookings Institution has commissioned works on major topics of public policy by distinguished authors, including Brookings scholars. The Brookings Essay is a multi-­ platform product aimed to engage readers in open dialogue and debate. The views expressed, however, are solely those of the author. You can access the entire Brookings Essay series online at Copyright © 2018 the brookings institution 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 978-0-8157-3523-6 (ebook) ...