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From: Putinomics

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NOTES Preface 1 Hill and Gaddy, Mr. Putin, 141. 2 Sakwa, Putin, 53. 3 Sanders, “Did Vladimir Putin Call the Breakup of the USSR ‘the Greatest Geopolitical Tragedy of the 20th Century?’” 4 Weiss, “Five Myths about Vladimir Putin.” 5 The most recent account is Dawisha, Putin’s Kleptocracy. 6 Everett, “McCain: Russia Is a ‘Gas Station.’” 7 “The Making of a Neo-KGB State”; Gessen, The Man without a Face. 8 Shleifer and Treisman, “A Normal Country.” 9 Kaiser, “One Entrepreneur’s Adventures Illustrate Hopes, Frustrations.” 10 Nichols, “Doubts Riddle Optimism of Young Russians.” 11 Reeves, “Russia Is Down but Not Out.” 12 This is according to World Bank data. For a discussion of the definition of rent in the Russian context, see Gaddy and Ickes, “Resource Rents and the Russian Economy.” 13 Kronick, “Why Only Half of Venezuelans Are in the Streets.” 14 According to World Bank data, per capita GDP in 1999, adjusted for purchasing power parity, in current US$, was $10,981 in Venezuela and $5,914 in Russia. Without adjusting for purchasing power parity, GDP per capita was $4,078 in Venezuela and $1,330 in Russia. The most recent World Bank data on GDP per capita adjusting for purchasing power parity, in 2013, has Venezuela at $18,309 and Russia at $24,165. 15 See Moody’s online database at www​.Moodys​.com. 16 Charlton, “What More Does It Need?” Chapter 1 1 Bohlen, “Russia Acts to Fix Sinking Finances.” 2 Thornill, “Russia’s Moment of Truth”; “Chronology of Russian Financial Crisis.” 3 For an overview, see Treisman, “Ruble Politics.” 172 | Notes to Pages 2–14 4 Hoffman, “Russia Devalues the Ruble to Prop Up Banking System”; Daigle, “Warnings by Soros Send Markets into Panic.” 5 Hoffman, “Russia Devalues the Ruble to Prop Up Banking System”; Daigle, “Warnings by Soros Send Markets into Panic.” 6 Chiodo and Owyang, “A Case Study of a Currency Crisis.” 7 Bohlen, “Rumors and Contradictions Fuel Russia Market Crisis.” 8 “Russia’s Shrinking Options.” 9 Estimates vary widely based on the assumptions made. For an overview, see Noren, “The Controversy over Western Measures of Soviet Defense Expenditures.” 10 Nove, “Agriculture.” 11 I address this dilemma in Miller, The Struggle to Save the Soviet Economy. 12 Hanson, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Economy, 210; Miller, The Struggle to Save the Soviet Economy. 13 World Bank, Russian Economic Reform, 8. 14 See, e.g., “Otchet Tsentralnogo Banka Rossiiiskii Federatsii za 1992.” 15 Granville, “Farewell, Ruble Zone”; Granville, “The IMF and the Ruble Zone.” 16 Hill and Gaddy, Mr. Putin, 162. 17 Ibid., 143. 18 Whether Putin formally resigned from the KGB is disputed; see Gessen, The Man without a Face, 117–18. 19 Hill and Gaddy, Mr. Putin, 276; Dawisha, Putin’s Kleptocracy, 82. 20 Putin et al., First Person. 21 Dawisha, Putin’s Kleptocracy, 81. 22 Ibid., 82. Whether Putin had legal authority to issue such licenses remains a subject of debate; see Hill and Gaddy, Mr. Putin, 173. 23 Dawisha, Putin’s Kleptocracy, 83. 24 Duhamel, The KGB Campaign against Corruption in Moscow. 25 Putin et al., First Person, 96. 26 Hill and Gaddy, Mr. Putin, 179–82. 27 Ibid., 180. 28 Ibid., 177. 29 Ibid., 176–79. 30 Dawisha, Putin’s Kleptocracy, 175. 31 Ibid., 176; Putin et al., First Person, 117; Gessen, The Man without a Face, 139. 32 Bunin, Biznesmeny Rossii, 5. 33 For these data, see Shleifer, A Normal Country, 159. 34 Sakwa, Putin and the Oligarchs, 11. 35 Kramer, “Rem Vyakhirev.” 36 For details, see Boycko, Shleifer, and Vishny, Privatizing Russia, chap. 4. 37 Fortescue, Russia’s Oil Barons and Metal Magnates, 54–55. 38 Ibid., 42. 39 Freeland, Sale of the Century, 195. 40 Shleifer and Treisman, Without a Map, 69. 41 “Godfather of the Kremlin?” 42 Putin et al., First Person, 127–28. Notes to Pages 14–27 | 173 43 Shleifer and Treisman, Without a Map, 41–43, 92; Cook, Postcommunist Welfare States, 67. 44 This section draws heavily on Shleifer and Treisman, Without a Map. 45 Ibid., 73, 76. 46 Ibid., 43. 47 Ibid., 144. 48 Ibid., 146. 49 Ibid., 147. 50 Ibid., 146–47. 51 Ibid., 147–49. 52 Ibid., 147, 153. 53 “Russia’s Quiet Loan”; Freeland, Sale of the Century, 265. 54 Freeland, Sale of the Century, 297–98. 55 Ibid., 304. 56 Ibid., 308–10. 57 Paterson, Womack, and Vines, “Russia Rebuffs Soros on Call for Devaluation.” 58 Freeland, Sale of the Century, 323. 59...


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Subject Headings

  • Russia (Federation) -- Economic policy -- 1991-.
  • Russia (Federation) -- Economic conditions -- 1991-.
  • Russia (Federation) -- Politics and government -- 1991-.
  • Elite (Social sciences) -- Russia (Federation).
  • Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich, 1952-.
  • Presidents -- Russia (Federation).
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