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181 Notes Introduction 1. On ritualization, see Bell 1992, 74. 2. See especially Segal 1996; also Hinden 1974, 364; Segal 1981, 18–19; Seaford 1994, 343; Falkner 1999, 176; Sourvinou-Inwood 2003, 299; Bierl 2007, 31; Vinh 2011, 326; Rehm 2012, 415. 3. See, for example, Zeitlin 1970, 363–64; Hinden 1974, 364; Segal 1981, 7; 1986, 69; 1996, 157; Burkert 1985b, 6–7; Foley 1985, 34–39; Seaford 1994, 343–44; Lloyd-Jones 1998a, 276; Bierl 2007, 31; des Bouvrie 2011, 140–44. Though focused on choral hymns and not tragedy, Kowalzig (2007, 34–35) offers a similar evaluation of the community-building properties of ritual. 4. See Segal 1981, 40, 138; 1996, 157; Burkert 1985b, 7; Foley 1985, 59; Seaford 1994, xi–xii; Lloyd-Jones 1998a, 276–80; Rehm 2012, 414–16. 5. Aristotle was the first that we know of to suggest the connection (Poet. 1449a7–15), and the notion was fully developed by the so-called Cambridge Ritualists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, including, among others, Jane Harrison, Gilbert Murray, and Francis Cornford. More recent views can be found in Burkert 1966 and Sourvinou-Inwood 2003. More briefly, see Friedrich 1983, 174; 1996, 271–72; Seaford 1994, 235–80; Sourvinou-Inwood 1994; Henrichs 1994/95; Segal 1995, 180; Krummen 1998, 325; Lloyd-Jones 1998a, 275–77; Braungart 2007, 363; Vinh 2011, 326. For a dissenting opinion, see Scullion 2002. 6. Easterling (1993, 8–9; 2004) is one of the main proponents of this view. See also Foley 1985, 63–64; Krummen 1998, 325; Woodruff 2008, 109; Rehm 2012, 424. 7. See Zeitlin 1970, 5; Segal 1981, 18; Burkert 1985a, 54; 1985b, 20; Easterling 1996, 180; Krummen 1998, 299; Alexiou 2004, 96; Henrichs 2004; Sourvinou-Inwood 2004, 161. See also Kowalzig 2007, 40–42, with a focus on choral hymns. 8. Zeitlin 1970, 344–67. 9. Zeitlin 1965, 1966. 10. See chapter 3. 11. Krummen 1998, especially 296–301. 12. See chapter 2. 13. Henrichs 2004. 14. Henrichs 2004, 198. 182 Notes to Pages 7–9 15. It is important to stress at this point that I have no wish to entangle myself in unverifiable assertions about what Sophocles intended to do. There is no reliable means of reconstructing his poetic intentions, and I do not claim to know what they were. However, Sophocles’ plays were staged in the context of a festival that incorporated many ritual components . Beyond the theater, the social and political world of ancient Athens was steeped in ritual, both in reality and in mimetic representations in literary and other artistic contexts, from the Homeric epics to the Parthenon frieze. Sophocles and his audience, in other words, shared an extensive knowledge of ritual based on repeated exposure. It seems unlikely that he would not have been attuned to the possibilities open to him on the basis of this common knowledge. However, even if his use of ritual is entirely accidental, which seems doubtful, my fundamental claim that the theatrical experience of the ancient audience would have been affected by the ritual content of his plays is unaltered. 16. I will not attempt any comprehensive description of modern work on theories of ritual. Bell 1997, Kreinath et al. 2006, and Stausberg 2009 each offer a helpful starting point for those wishing to become better acquainted with the hugely diverse work that has been done in this area. 17. Cf. Grimes’s (1990, 13–14) list of ritual characteristics or Elsbree’s (1991, 7–9) use of Wittgenstein’s notion of family resemblances. Bell (1992, 69) speaks eloquently to the difficulty of trying to define all ritual by means of a single universal construct. See also Tambiah 1980, 116; Snoek 2006. 18. Cf. the definitions offered by Luhmann 1984, 9–10; Bell 1992, 88–93; 1997, 81–82; Rappaport 1999, 24. 19. Grimes 2000, 259–62. 20. See especially Burkert 1985a; Parker 1996, 2005, 2011; Sourvinou-Inwood 2003; Mikalson 2010. 21. See especially Parker 1983; Bushnell 1988; Watson 1991; Pulleyn 1997; Alexiou 2002; Dodd and Faraone 2003, Naiden 2006, 2013; Rosenberger 2013; Sommerstein and Torrance 2014. 22. See especially Zeitlin 1970, 18–35. 23. Zeitlin 1970, 41–42. 24. I consider only the complete extant plays of Sophocles in my examination of the corpus, excluding the extensive fragments that have been preserved. As I will show, one of the defining features of ritual in a dramatic context is that it evokes a predictable progression that has clear connections to the progression of the...

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Additional Information

ISBN
9780299313838
Related ISBN
9780299313807
MARC Record
OCLC
1018944961
Pages
256
Launched on MUSE
2018-01-18
Language
English
Open Access
No
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