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Notes Introduction 1. BakerandCooke,“BronxSlaveMarket,”330.AlsoseeGore,RadicalismattheCrossroads , 106–112; Harris, “Marvel Cooke,” 91–126; and Streitmatter, Raising Her Voice, 84–94. 2. Cooke, Interviews with Marvel Cooke, interview by Kathleen Currie, Women in Journalism Oral History Project, October 31, 1989, 79, 83. 3. Muhammad, “Interview with Payne,” 7. Also see Streitmatter, Raising Her Voice, 118–128. 4. Payne, “Spectrum” transcript, CBS Radio Network, October 24, 1972, box 43, folder 9, PaynePapers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 5. La Brie, “The Black Press: An Outlet for Black Poets and Black Fiction Writers?” in PerspectivesoftheBlackPress, 53–65. Regarding the study of print culture, see Darnton ,“WhatIstheHistoryofBooks?”65–83;andWiegand,“Introduction:Theoretical FoundationsforAnalyzingPrintCultureasAgencyandPracticeinaDiverseModern America,” in Danky and Wiegand, PrintCultureinaDiverseAmerica, 1–16. 6. Wilkins, “Negro Press,” 362. Regarding Freedom’s Journal, see James, Struggles of JohnBrownRusswurm. 7. “Appreciating the Newspaper,” PittsburghCourier, April 12, 1930. 8. “EditorialPolicy,”BlackPanther,September27,1970;and“OwingtotheHighCost of Manhood,” October 18, 1917, box 5, folder 50, HarrisonPapers, Columbia University. 9. Regarding the federal government’s efforts to censor black newspapers in wartime , see Finkle, ForumofProtest; Jordan, BlackNewspapersandAmerica’sWarforDemocracy ; Kornweibel, InvestigateEverything; and Washburn, QuestionofSedition. 214 • Notes to Introduction and Chapter 1 10. Dabney,“NearerandNearerthePrecipice,”94;Hanchard,“Afro-­Modernity,”247; and Sancton, “Negro Press,” 558. Gonzalez and Torres contend “newspapers, radio, and television played a pivotal role in perpetuating racist views among the general population” in NewsforAllthePeople, 2. 11. Harrison,“TwoNegroRadicalisms,”inHarrisonReader,102–105;andSingh,Black IsaCountry, 69. 12. My characterization of commercial publishers as “establishmentarian dissidents ” was inspired by the discussion of political protest in Vladimir Putin’s Russia in Dobson, Dictator’sLearningCurve. 13. Washburn, “Dozen Best,” supports my description of the historiography of the blackpress.BiographiesfrequentlyreferencedinthisbookincludeBuni,RobertL.Vann; Farrar, Baltimore Afro-­American; Hogan, Black National News Service; Perry, Hubert Harrison ; and Suggs, P.B.Young. For the wartime interaction of the black press and federal government, see Finkle, Forum of Protest; Jordan, Black Newspapers and America’s War for Democracy; Kornweibel, Investigate Everything; and Washburn, Question of Sedition. Notable reference works include Pride and Wilson, History of the Black Press; Suggs, BlackPressintheSouthandBlackPressintheMiddleWest;Wolseley,BlackPress,U.S.A.;and Washburn, AfricanAmericanNewspaper. 14. See Singh, Black Is a Country; Mullen, Popular Fronts; Plummer, Rising Wind; and Von Eschen, RaceagainstEmpire. Chapter 1. “Negro Subversion” 1. See,generally,Jordan,BlackNewspapersandAmerica’sWarforDemocracy;andKornweibel , InvestigateEverything. 2. Col. M. Churchill to Chief of Staff, War Department, July 2, 1918, FederalSurveillanceofAfro -­Americans,microfilm,reel19,732;andJordan,BlackNewspapersandAmerica’s WarforDemocracy, 122–133. 3. Maj. J. E. Spingarn to Churchill, June 22, 1918, and Churchill to Chief of Staff, July2,1918,FederalSurveillanceofAfro-­Americans,reel19,732,734;and“EditorsDiscuss War Problems with Scott,” BaltimoreAfro-­American, July 5, 1918. 4. Thornbrough,“AmericanNegroNewspapers,1880–1914,”468.Forabriefintroduction to black print culture from the Civil War to World War II, see James P. Danky, “Reading, Writing, and Resisting: African American Print Culture,” in Kaestle and Radway, PrintinMotion, Vol. 4, 339–358. 5. Ayers, PromiseoftheNewSouth, 132–159. 6. Brown, “Negro Character as Seen by White Authors,” 179–203; and “Education by the Press,” NorfolkJournalandGuide, July 20, 1935. 7. “Negro Tramps about Washington,” NewYorkTimes, March 4, 1880. 8. “Lynch Law in Cuthbert,” MaconTelegraphandMessenger, August 11, 1885; “Work forJudgeLynch,”WheelingRegister,February8,1886;and“LynchingaNegroBrute,”St. LouisPost-­Dispatch,April7,1882.AlsoseeWasserman,HowtheMediaPackagedLynching. Notes to Chapter 1 • 215 9. Wells, Crusade for Justice, 69; and Richard Yarborough, “Violence, Manhood, and Black Heroism,” in Cecelski and Tyson, DemocracyBetrayed, 228. 10. Jackson, “Popular Media,” in BlackAmericanReferenceBook, 849–852. 11. Biographical sketches of nineteenth-­ century editors are found in Penn, Afro-­ American Press and Its Editors; and Suggs, Black Press in the South and Black Press in the MiddleWest.Forfullerdiscussionsoftheeditorsmentioned,seeAlexander,RaceMan; Bay, To Tell the Truth Freely; Chase, “Shelling the Citadel of Race Prejudice,” 371–391; Gatewood, “Edward E. Cooper,” 269–275, 324; and Thornbrough, T.ThomasFortune. 12. Fortune quoted in Penn, Afro-­American Press and Its Editors, 483; and Alexander, RaceMan, 41–42. 13. Baker, Following the Color Line, 110–111; U.S. Department of Commerce, Negro PopulationintheUnitedStates, 404; and Hershaw, “Negro Press in America,” 67. 14. Trachtenberg, IncorporationofAmerica; and Ohmann, SellingCulture. 15. Starr, CreationoftheMedia, 252; and Ohmann, SellingCulture, 29. 16. Schudson, Discovering the News, 71. Also see Campbell, Year That Defined American Journalism, 1–16; Daly, Covering America, 112–182; and Spencer, Yellow Journalism, 77–94. 17. Ohmann,SellingCulture,220,258,264–265;andStarr,CreationoftheMedia,233– 266. 18. Johnson, NegroAmericans,WhatNow?, 26; and Gore, NegroJournalism, 14–15. 19. Pride, “Negro Newspapers,” 181; and Julius Eric Thompson, “Mississippi,” in Suggs, BlackPressintheSouth, 178. 20. “Constitution and By-­Laws of...


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